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NABTEB Chemistry Syllabus

NABTEB Chemistry Syllabus And Hot Topics To Read For 2021 NABTEB: If you have been wondering how to get NABTEB Syllabus Online Plus hot topics you are to focus on in Chemistry then Guide is for you.

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The aim of the National Business and Technical Examinations Board (NABTEB) Chemistry Syllabus for 2021 is to ensure that you are well prepared for the exam. 

AIMS Of NABTEB Chemistry Syllabus

The aims of the syllabus are to:
a. Provide knowledge in Chemistry which will be appropriate for students who require its application in their various trades/vocational studies and are likely to end their study of Chemistry at the NTC level.

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  1. Serve as foundation for post-technical education.
  2. Provide students with the basic knowledge of the underlying concepts, principles and

generalizations of technological processes and products.

  1. Enable students carry out practical and project works stated in the teaching

syllabus, thus strengthen their ability in the scientific processes of observation,

application, problem solving and formulation of mental models.

  1. Expose students to the use of S.I. units and the IUPAC system of nomenclature.
  2. Create awareness in the students of the inter-relationship between Chemistry and their

various trades and its link with their work/job environment.
h. Inculcate in the students the culture of safety precautions.

EXAMINATION SCHEME

The examination shall consist of two papers.

  1. 05-1  Paper I (2 1„2 hours) 150 marks (Theory)
  2. 05-2  Paper 2 (2 hours) 50 marks (Practical)

PAPER I: This is a theory paper. It consist of two Parts ”“ Part A and Part B.

Part A: This shall consist of fifty (50) multiple-choice objective questions, to be answered by candidates in 50 minutes for 50 marks.

Part B: This shall consist of five (5) essay questions from which candidates are expected to attempt FOUR (4) questions only. Each of the essay question carries 25 marks for a total of 100 marks in a duration of hour 1 hour 40 minutes.

PAPER 2 (Practical):

This shall be a 2 hours practical test, either the actual practical or alternative to practical. It shall consist of THREE (3) compulsory questions for a total of 50 marks. The actual practical shall be taken by schools WHILE the alternative to practical shall be taken by private candidates.

ALTERNATIVE TO PRACTICAL

The alternative to practical will test the knowledge of the practical skills and processes that the candidates are expected to have acquired in the practical activities that are prescribed in the syllabus.

S/NTopic/ObjectivesContentsActivities/Remarks
1.Elements Compounds and Mixtures
1.1 Explain the concepts of elements, compounds and mixtures.
1.2 Identify the properties e.g. melting point, boiling point, solubility etc of common substances in the laboratory. If may be used as basis for choice of separation methods.
1. Concepts of Elements, Compounds and Mixtures.Physical and ChemicalchangesDefinition of Elements,Compounds andMixtures.Methods of separationof Mixtures.Use the burning of candle to demonstrate or identify examples of physical and chemical changes in nature.Experimental illustration of the methods of separation of mixtures is required.
2.Structure of the Atom1.1 Explain the concepts of atoms, molecules and ions (atomic or molecular ions)1.2  Explain the features of the atom.1.3  Draw and label the main electronic shells of the atom and explain atomic- number, isotopes, relative atomic mass (Ar), relative molecular mass (Mr) and calculate the relative atomic masses of elements that exhibit isotopy.1.4  List the main and sub- energy levels in an atom and explain the arrangement of electrons in these energy levels.Concepts of Atoms, Molecules and Ions: Definition and treatment of particles as building block of matter.Gross features of the Atom:Account of Dalton’s Atomic theory.Outline of the J.J. Thomson’s Experiment and Bohr-Rutherford’s Alpha Particles Scattering Experiment to establish the structure of the atoms.Electronic Shells.Atomic number, Massnumber, Isotopes, Relative atomic number (Ar), Relative molecular mass (Mr).Electronic Energy Levels:”¢ Arrangement ofelectrons in the mainand sub-energy levels. 6. Orbitals.”¢ Originofs,p,d,andf orbitals as sub-energy levels.”¢ Shapes of s and p ”“J.J. Thompson’s Experiment should be given.Arrangement of electrons in the main shells (K,L,M) and calculation of relative atomic mass of chlorine as example is required.
1.5  Discuss the orbitals of atom and explain the rules for filling electrons in the sub-energy levels.1.6  Distinguish between chemical reaction and nuclear reaction.1.7  Explain the nature of the three main types of radiation.1.8  Define radioactivity. Distinguish between natural and artificial. Explain nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.1.9  Define ”˜Half-life’ as a measure of the stability of the atomic nucleus.1.10 Write and balance simple nuclear equation. 1.11 Explain the effects ofradioactive radiation on human beings and state the uses of radio isotopes.orbitalsAufbau Principle,Hund’s rule of Maximum Multiplicity and Pauli’s Exclusion Principle.Abreviated and detailed electronic configuration in terms of s, p and d orbitals from hydrogen to zinc.7. Nuclear Chemistry:Chemical reaction andnuclear reaction.Balancing of simplenuclear equation.Types and nature ofradiations (alpha, Betaand Gamma rays).Natural and artificialradioactivityNuclear fission andnuclear fusion.Devices used fordetectingradioactiveities.Qualitative treatment ofhald life.Effects andapplications of radioactivity, carbon dating, uses in agriculture, medicine and industry.It is instructive for teachers to point out that contrary to what obtains in chemical reaction, a new element may be created during a nuclear reaction.Symbols too, should be used to identify the type of radiation. Geiger Muller counter of detecting radiation should be described.
3.Periodicity of the Element1.1 State the periodic law and its application in the formulation of the periodic table.1.2  Outline the periodic properties and their trends across the period and down a group.1.3  Outline the periodic graduation of properties1. Periodic law and table. ”¢ Electronicconfigurations leading to group and periodic classifications.”¢ The uniqueness of hydrogen atom in the periodic table.2. Periodic properties of the first 30 elements, atomic size, ionization energy,Highlight the uniqueness of hydrogen in relation to the alkali metals on one hand, and the halogens on the other progression from:i. Metallic to
of the halogens.
1.4 Explain the meaning of the transition metals and their characteristic properties.
electron affinity and electronegativity.Periodic graduation of theproperties of halogens.Physical states, meltingpoints.Redox properties,displacement reaction of one halogen by another.Transition metals and their characteristic properties: Electronic configuration, Metallic properties, Chemical reactivities, Magnetic properties, variable oxidation states, formation of complex ions and catalytic properties.nonmetallic character of elements.
ii. Ionic ”“ covalent bonding in compound is required.Properties of chlorine as a typical halogen to include: i. Variable oxidation state.
ii. Reaction with H20 and alkali. should be taught. Note that many typical non-metals e.g. Nitrogen, Sulphur and Chlorine also exhibit variable oxidation states. Note also that zinc has a constant oxidation state of (+2).
4.Chemical Bonding4.1 Explain chemical bonding and list the types of chemical combinations.4.2  Illustrate with appropriate examples electrovalent or ionic bonding. List factors that influence the formation of electrovalent compound and outline the properties of an electrovalent or ionic compound.4.3  Illustrate with appropriate examples, ordinary covalent andChemical bonding and types of chemical combination.Inter-atomic bonding:
a. ionic bonding factors.
* ionization energy, electron affinity and electro negativity differences. Properties: Melting points, boiling points and solubility in various solvents.
b. Covalent bonding factors: ionization energy, electron affinity and electron negativity differences. Properties such as melting points,
Teachers should present bonding as a process/tendency by which elements attain the structure of the nearest noble gas in the periodic table.
Lewis dot structure for ionic and covalent compound should be treated.
coordinate covalent/dative bonding. List factors which influence the formation of covalent compounds and outline the properties of covalent compounds.4.4 Draw the shape of simple molecules.4.5  Explain metallic bonding. List factors that influence the formation of metallic bonds and outline the typical properties of metals..4.6  Explain vander Waal’s forces. Give examples of the compound in which they exist and explain the variation of melting points and boiling points of noble gases; halogen and alkenes in terms of vander Waal’s forces.4.7  Explain the unusually higher boiling point of HF, H20 and NH3 over HCL, H2S and PH3 respectively due to hydrogen bonding.solubility in varioussolvents.Simple molecules and theirshapes i.e. (i) Linear (ii) Non-linear (iii) Tetrachedral.)Metallic bonding: Factors such as atomic radius, ionization potential, and number of valence electrons. Properties to include conductivity, malleability, ductility.Intermolecular bonding.
a. vander Waal’s forces: relative physical properties of polar and non-polar compounds.b. Hydrogen bonding.
* Variation in the boiling points of compounds such as H20, H2S
Models should be used where applicable.These should be demonstrated using metals such as Mg, Zn, Sn and Fe.Description of formation and nature should be treated. Dipole-dipole and induced dipolar forces is required.
5.Stoichiometry and Chemical Reactions 5.1 Explain symbols,formulae and equations. List the rules for writing of balanced equations and write balanced chemical equations by applying the rules.5.2  State and explain the laws of chemical combination.5.3  Explain the concepts of moles, Avogadro number and constant molarSymbols, formulae and equations.”¢ Chemical symbols. ”¢ Empirical andmolecular formulae. ”¢ Chemical equations. Combining power ofelements and oxidationnumbers.Laws of chemicalcombination.Law of conservation ofmass.Law of constantcomposition.Experimental illustration of the laws are required.
volume, mole ratio, amount of substance used, mole ratios to determine the stoichiometry of chemical reactions. Mole fraction5.4 Explain the concept of solution.Ӣ Law of multiple proportion.3. Amount of substance:mass and volumemeasurements.Avogadro constant. Las the number of carbon atoms in 1 mole (12.00g of 12C).Molar quantities and their uses.Mole of electrons, atoms, molecules, formula units.Mole ratio.Calculation of massconcentration and molar concentration volume and other quantities in chemical reactions.4. Solutions:concept of solution asmade up of solvent and solute (in a single phase).Concentration terms.Standard solutions.Preparation of some primary standard solutions using anhydrous Na2CO3, (COOH), 2H2Odilution factor determination.
6.States of Matter1.1 Define And explain the concept if law, theory and hypothesis as usual in science.1.2 State the postulate of Kinetic theory of matter. Explain the nature of solids, liquids and gasses, change of state of matter1. Kinetic model of matter.Postulates of the kinetictheory.Nature of solids,liquids and gases.Change of states ofmatter.Diffusion,demonstration usingChanges of state of matter should be explained in terms of particle movement, illustration using: candle wax, water, iodine, sulphur, naphthalene etc for the changes of state.
and diffusion using thekinetic model.1.3  State and explain the gaslaws. Explain each law using the kinetic model. Represent the laws mathematically and graphically (where applicable). Derive the general gas lwaw.1.4  State the relationship of vapour pressure with the boiling points of liquids. Describe simple methods for the determination of boiling points.1.5  Classify solids. Compare the properties of the types of solids. Describe the arrangement of ions, molecules and atoms in three dimensions in the solid state.Explain melting points and describe the structure, properties, and uses of diamond and graphite.diffusion of bromine/iodine/No2H from a sealed tube into an empty tube and spread of scent of ammonia in a room.Gases:
The gas laws. Charles’ Boyle’s Dalton’s, Graham’s Avogadro’s law and ideal gas equation. Mathematical relation of the gas laws and calculations. Molar volume of a gas at S.T.P. = 22.4dm3.
PV = KT
Derivation of general gas law and calculations.Liquids:Liquids as anintermediate state between gases and solids in the kinetic molecular sense.Concept of vapour pressure: simple determination of boiling points.Standard boiling points.Types and structure.Ionic, metallic,covalent and molecularsolidsComparism of theproperties of the typesof solids.Regular arrangement ofions, molecules and atoms in three dimensions in the solid state.Melting points.
Illustration of Brownian motion using:Pollen grain/sulphur in water (viewed under microscope).Smokes in glass container illuminated by a strong light from the side.A dusty room being swept and viewed from outside under sunlight is required.Teachers should endeavour to point out the differences between Dalton’s law and dalton’s atomic theory.
Ӣ Structures, properties and uses of diamond and graphite.Experimental illustration of how to determine the boiling points is required.Specific packing arrangement knowledge is NOT required.
7.Energy and Energy Changes7.1 Define energy. List different forms of energy. State the laws of conservation of energy and explain its units.1. Energy changes in physical and chemical processes: Enthalpy, energy diagrams, forms of energy, energy content, transfer of energy.
7.2  Explain the term exothermic reactions, endothermic reactions, heat of reaction, heat of formation, heat of combustion, heat of neutralization and heat of solution. Measure and calculate heat of neutralization, heat of solution and heat of combustion.7.3  Concepts of free energy and entropy. Discussionof ˆ†G=ˆ†H-Tˆ†S2. Description, definition and illustrations of energy changes and effects:Exothermic andendothermic processes.Total energy of asystem as the sum of various forms of energy e.g. kinetic, potential, electrical, heat, sound, etc.Enthalpy changes of the following:Formation, combustion,solution, neutralization.Practical knowledge of the measurement of the heats of neutralization,solution andcombustion.Uses of energy changesHeat of neutralization of HCI and Na0H and heat of solution of sodium trioxothiosulphate pentahydrate in water should be measured and calculated in the laboratory as example. Heat of combustion can also be measured using low-flame spirit/kerosene lamp.
including energy contents of foods and fuels.Ӣ Conditions for spontaneous changes as consequences of balance between tendency towards lower enthalpy and tendency toward higher entropy.
8.Acids, Bases and Salts.1.1 Define acid, base and salt. Explain Arrhenius theory of acids and basicity of an acid.1.2  Outline the various physical and chemical properties and chemical properties of acids, bases and salts. Balance chemical equations of ionic reactions.1.3  Explain the preparation of acids and salts by various methods.1.4  Define electrolyte and non-electrolyte. Distinguish between strong and weak electrolytes.
Determine the conductances and enthalpy of neuralization of acids, bases and salts.1.5  Explain the pH scale. Use it to determine the acidity and alkalinity of aqueous solutions.1.6  Explain the behaviour of weak acids and bases in water. Compare the conductances of molar solutions of strong and weak acids and bases.1.7  Explain hydrolysis and
Acids, bases and salts: Ӣ Definition.Arrhenius concept of acids and bases.Basicity of and acidPhysical and chemical properties of acids andbases:Conductivities, tasteetc.Concept ofamphoterismBalanced chemicalequations of allreactions.Preparation of acids andsalts:
Ӣ Deliquescentefflorescent and hygroscopic substances.Acids, bases and salts as electrolytes.Electrolytes and non- electrolytes, strong and weak electrolytes.Evidence from conductivity and enthalpy of neutralization.The pHknowledge of the pHscale.as a measure ofacididity and alkalinity
The use of deliquescent and hygroscopic substances as drying agents should be emphasized.
the behaviour of somesalts.1.8  Explain the elementarytheory of indicators: State the working oH ranges of methyl orange and phenolphthalein.1.9  Identify correctly the relevant apparatus for acid-base titrations. Carry out titrations using acids, bases and appropriate indicators.of aqueous solutions ”¢ Simple calculations ofpH and poH from givendataWeak acids and weakbases:Behaviour of acids andbases in water as an example of equilibrium system.Comparison of the conductances of molar solutions of strong and weak acids and bases.hydrolysisBehaviour of NH4CIAICI3, CuSO4, Na2CO3H, Na2S, CuNO3 CH3COONa in water. Compare with NaCI, CaCI2, Ba(NO3)2, K2SO4.Acid-base indicators:Indicators as weakorganic acids andbases.Colour of indicator atany pH dependent on relative amounts of acid and base forms.Working ranges of methyl orange and phenolphthaleinacid-base titrations.Workings of indicatorsin acid-base titrations.Determineconcentrations, % purity, water of crystallization from the experimental result.Teachers should discuss the domestic and industrial applications of pH measurement sketching and interpretation of pH curves.Teacher is advised to approach this practically, testing the various solutions with litmust paper or litmus solution.
Titration involving weak acids versus strong bases, strong acids versus strong bases, using the appropriate indicators and their application in quantitative determination should be treated.
9.Solubility9.1 Explain the general principles of solubility.Define solution, saturated solution, super saturated solution and solubility.Factors affecting solubilityDetermination ofsolubilities of substance.Solubility curves and theirapplications.Solubility should be expressed in Moldm-3 of solution.
10.Rates of Reaction and Equilibrium Systems1.1  Define rate of reaction. Explain factorsaffecting rates of reactions. Discuss the theory of reaction rates.1.2  Explain the general principles ofequilibrium, Le Chatelier’s principle and factors affecting positions\ of equilibrium in chemical reactions.Rates of reaction:definition of the ratesof reaction for gaseous systems: Pressure may be used as concentration terms.Collision theory and activation energy theory.Factors influencing collision such as temperature and concentration, surface area/nature of reactions.Concentration time graphEffective collision.Activation energyEnergy profilediagrams showing activation energy and enthalpy change.Equilibrium systems:”¢ Reversible andirreversible reactions.
Meaning of equilibrium constant and its mathematical expression.Statement of Le Chatelier’s principles.Factors affecting the position of equilibrium of chemical reactions.Experimental demonstration of the effect of the factors on equilibrium position of chemical reactions is required.
11.Redox Reactions1.1 Explain the concepts of oxidation andreduction, reducing and oxidizing agents, redox reactions. Outline the rules for the determination of oxidation numbers of elements in substances.1.2 Describe electrochemical cells and outline their applications.Definitions of oxidation and reduction, reducing and oxidizing agents in terms of:Addition and removal of oxygen andhydrogen.Loss and gain ofelectrons.Change in oxidationnumber.Oxidation numbers/statesTests for oxidants andreductants.Balancing of redoxequations by:ion, electron, or changein oxidationnumber/state.Half reactions andoverall reactions.Categorising of processes at theelectrodes.Standard electrodepotentials ofelectrochemical cells.Drawing and writing of thecell diagrams.Electromotive force ofcells.Distinction betweenprimary and secondaryTeachers sould emphasise the fact that oxidation and reduction are simultaneous and complementary processes illustration of substances that act as oxidizing and reducing agent in (a) different reaction(b) the same reaction e.g. disproportion IUPAC system of nomenclature is required.
1.3  Explain the principles/mechanisms of electrolysis. Discuss the factors that determine the preferential discharge of ions at the electrode and their practical applications.1.4  Explain the concept of corrosion on metals.cells.
5. Daniell cell, Lead acid accumulator, dry cell and their use as generators of electrical energy from chemical energy.Principles of electrolysisComparison of themechanism of electrolysiswith electrochemical cellsFaraday’s LawPractical applicationsCorrosion treated as redox process.Rusting of iron and its economic implication.Prevention based on relative magnitude of electrode potentials, preventive methods like galvanizing, sacrificial cathodic protection, and non-redox methods.
Simple calculations based on the relation F = Le = 96,500C and mole ratios to determine mass, volume of gases, number of entities, etc.
12.Basic Chemistry of Non- Metals
12.1 Describe and explain thepreparation, properties, and qualitative tests of some selected elements.
Oxygen: Laboratory and industrial preparation, properties, uses and tests, binary compounds of oxygen: acidic oxides, basic oxides, amphoteric oxides, neutral oxides and higher oxides..Hydrogen: Laboratory and industrial preparation, properties, uses and tests, isotopes of hydrogen.Water and solution: Composition of H2O2 hardness of water, properties and test.The teacher could mention the other allotropic modification of oxygen i.e. ozone (O3).The contributions of 2H the isotopes and to the making of 3H heavy water and hydrogen bomb respectively. Reference should be made to acidulated water.
4. Halogens:
Chlorine: Laboratory preparation, properties and
Qualitative tests for the chloride ions should be
reactions. Uses of chlorine and halogen compounds Laboratory preparation of HCL gas is requiredNitrogen: Laboratory and industrial preparation, properties and uses, compounds of nitrogen:NH3 laboratories/industrial preparation and uses.HNO3: Laboratory preparation, reactions and uses.NO2: Laboratory/ industrialpreparation,properties and uses.Carbon: Allotropes,general properties, CO & CO2 reparation, properties and uses.Sulphur: Allotropes and uses. Compound of sulphur; sulphides, trioxosulphate (IV) acid and salt, tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid ”“ industrial preparation, reactions and uses.8. Noble gases: Properties and uses.mentionedFountain experiment to illustrate solubility of HCL and NH3 Demonstration of the oxidation of Halides to other halogen by chlorine.Coal ”“ different types and destructive distillation is required.Candidates are expected to appreciate the fact that some noble gases do form compound when specially treated with fluorine.
13.Metals and Their Compounds
13.1 Differentiate betweenmetals and non-metals. Discuss the general principles of extraction of metals. Describe the extraction of selected metals.13.2 Apply the activity series.
Distinction between metals and non-metals. Relative abundance of metals/metallic ors in nature.Principle of extraction of metals. Preliminary preparations.
”¢ ElectrolysisReduction of chlorides.Reduction ofoxides/sulphides.Thermal and chemicalreductionExtraction and uses of:Alkali metals ”“ lithium, sodium and potassium. Alkaline earthmetals.Ca, Mg, and ALtransition of metals ”“Fe, Cu, Ag and AuImportant compounds of Na, K, Mg, Ca, A1,Ba, Cu, Ag, Zn, Hg, Feand their uses.Alloys of Fe, Cu, AL Pband ZnActivity series
Experimental determination is required.The uses of alkali metals as precipitating agents in cation analysis should be stressed.
14.Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry
14.1 Describe and explain themajor classification and nomenclature, separation and purification methods and general properties of organic compounds.
Classification and nomenclature.Root names.Functional groupsSeparation and purificationmethods ”“ distillation, crystallization, drying, chromatography.Determination of the empirical and molecular formulae and the molecular structure.Homologous series.Isomerism:Differences between structural geometric/ stereoisomerism.Teachers should use models to illustrate the shapes of molecules of hydrocarbon and isomerism.Example should be limited to compounds having maximum if five carbon atoms.
15.Chemistry of Hydrocarbons1.1 Explain the major classification ofhydrocarbons. Write the general and structural formulae and identify their functional groups.1.2 Explain the sources, properties and uses of the alkanes.1.3 Describe and explain the process of refining petroleum.1. Hgydrocarbons:Definition ofhydrocarbons.Sources ofhydrocarbonscoal.Natural gas and petroleum.c. Classifications of hydrocarbons.Aliphatic.Cyclic”“aliphatic andaromatic.Classifications ofaliphatic hydrocarbons.Distinction betweensaturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons.General and structural formulae of alkanes, alkenes and Alkynes.Identification of the functional groups.2. Alkanes:Laboratory andindustrial preparation.Nomenclature andstructure.Reactivity:Combustion, substitution reactions, cracking of large alkane molecules.Uses of alkanes: As fuels, starting materials for synthesis.Isomerism in alkanes. 3. Petroleum:”¢ Composition.Fractional distillationand major products.Cracking process andreforming.Petrochemicals.Octane numbr andTest for unsaturation is required.The uses of haloalkanes and pollution effects should be treted.
1.4 Explain the sources, properties and uses of alkenes.1.5 Explain the sources, properties and uses of alkynes.1.6 Describe the structure and properties of the benzene (both physical and chemical).antiknock Ӣ Uses.4. Alkenes:Laboratory preparation.Nomenclature andstructure.Main reactions such asaddition reactions with halogens, bromine water, hydrogen halides: Oxidation: Hydroxylation with aqeous KMnO4Laboratory detection: Use of reaction with Br2.CCI4 as a means of characterizing alkenes.5. Alkynes:Laboratory preparationor production.Nomenclature andstructure.Industrial uses ofethyne e.g. oxyacetylene (oxyethyne) in lamps.6. Benzene:Resonance in benzene.Halogenations.Addition reactions.Comparison of itsreaction with those of Alkenes.Mechanisms not required.
16.Chemistry of the Alkanos16.1 Explain the sources, nomenclature, structure, classification, properties and laboratory test of alkanas.General formula of alkanols as CnH2+1OH.Functional group of alkanols as OH.Molecular and structural formula and the IUPAC names of the first vew,General methods of preparation.Fermentation process as a method of preparation and from ethene a, a by product of the cracking process.Classification of alkanols. Ӣ PrimaryӢ SecondaryӢ TertiaryPhysical and chemicalproperties.Uses of ethanolTestPrepare ethanol by fermentation of starch. Mention should be made of the oxidation of primary and secondary alkanols to alkanals and alkanones respectively.
17.Basic Chemistry of Alkanoic Acids and Alkanoates
17.1 Explain the sources,nomenclature, structure, properties, uses and test of alkanoic acids and alkanoates
1. Alkanoic acids: General formula of the alkanoic acids as CnH2n+1COOHFunctional groups asCOOH.Molecular andstructural formula and IUPAC names of the first few members.Physical and chemical properties.Uses and properties of ethanoic and phenyl methanoic (benzoic) acids as examples of aliphatic and aromaic acids respectively.Laboratory est.Reaction with NaHCO3 2. Alkanoates:Preparation of alkyl alkanoates (esters) from alkanoic acids.Physical and chemicalTeachers should point out the existence of diaalkanoic acid e.g. ethane ”“1-2 dioic acid and aromatic acid e.g. phenyl methanoic acid (benzoic acid).Acidic properties should be emphasized.
properties . Fats and oils as a product of esterification.Ӣ Saponification, hardening of oils.Detergents.Comparison of soapyand soapless detergents with respect to their action with soft and hard water. respectively.Laboratory preparation of soapy detergents and soapless detergents.
18.Chemistry of Some Macro Molecules (Polymers)1.1 Explain the source, properties andimportant uses of some macro-molecules.Amino acids:
* Difunctional nature of amino acids.Natural and synthetic polymers:Ӣ DefinitionӢ Types of polymers.Natural polymers:Carbohydrates:formulae, properties,classification and uses.Proteins: Polymers ofamino molecules linked by peptides or amide linkage.Hydrolysis uses in living system.Synthetic polymers: Classification and monomers and co- polymers.
Simple examples of amino-acids should be given.Experimental differentiation of reducing and non reducing of sugars should be carried out.
19.Application of Chemistry in Industries and Environment
19.1 Differentiate betweentypes of chemical industries, their raw materials and explain alloy, their composition
1. Chemistry in nature.History of thedevelopment of thechemical industry.Important chemicalindustries in Nigeria, and their corresponding raw materials.
and uses.Distinction between fine and heavychemicals.Factors influencing thesiting of chemicalindustries.Effects of industries onthe community.2. Extraction of metals:Raw materials, processing, main products, by-products, recycling of AL, and Fe, Au or Sn.Uses of metals.Define and list thecommon alloys: Cu, AL, Pb, and Fe and their uses.
3. Pollution:Sources, effects andcontrol.Green house effect anddepletion of the ozonelayer.Biodegradablepollutants.4. Biotechnology:Food processing, fermentation including production of kenkey/gari, bread and alcoholic beverages e.g. local gin.

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