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NABTEB Physics Syllabus

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The aim of the National Business and Technical Examinations Board (NABTEB) Physics Syllabus for 2021 is to ensure that you are well prepared for the exam.


This syllabus has been designed from the NBTE Curriculum for the sole purpose of examination. It is designed to portray physics as a core science subject with emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge and skill associated with the concepts of Matter, Position, Time, Energy, Waves, Fields, Atomic and Nuclear Physics and Electronics.


The aims of the syllabus are to:

  1. ensure that candidates acquire proper understanding of the basic underlying

principles and applications of Physics.

  1. develop scientific knowledge and skills which will be the spring board for further scientific studies and activities.
  2. inculcate in students the general scientific processes and phenomena towards the eradication of ignorance and superstition.
  3. develop relevant scientific attitudes such as precision, objectivity, initiative and inventiveness for the purpose of technological development.


This subject will be made of two papers: Paper 1 and Paper 2 and will attract a total of 200 marks.

PAPER 1: will be the theory paper and will consist of two sections, A and B which will last for 2 3„4 hours

Section A: will comprise 50 multiple-choice objective questions drawn from all the areas of the syllabus. It will last for 11„4 hours for 50 marks

Section B: will consist of Five questions out of which candidates will be required to answer Four questions. It will last for 11„2 hours for 80 marks.

PAPER 2: will be a practical test which will last for 2 3„4 hours and will comprise three questions out of which candidates are to answer any two
questions for a total of 70 marks.

NOTE: Test-of-practical paper will be conducted as an alternative paper to real practical for private candidates during the November/December series. It will last for 2 3„4 hours for a total of 70 marks and will comprise three questions out of which candidates are requested to answer any two questions.

1.Concept of Matter1.1 Explain the structure ofmatter: 3 states of matter and use the kinetic theory to explain the 3 states.1. Structure of matter
2. three states of Matter Solid, Liquid and Gas .
3. The particle nature of matter using Brownian motion experiment.
4. The Kinetic theory explanation of thethree states of matter.
5. Use Kinetic theory to explainevaporation and boiling.
6. Crystaline and amorphous substancesmetal and gas.
Arrangement of atoms in crystalline structure is not required.
2.Fundamental Quantities and Units
1.1 State S.I. units of fundamental quantities and S.I. units of derived quantities.1.2  Measurement of Length, Mass and Time1.3  Measurement of Area and Volume of objects.
Fundamental quantities and their S.I. units.Derived quantities and their S.I. units.Measurement instruments for: i. Lengthii. Massiii. Time
Areas of regular and irregular objects. Volumes of regular and irregular objects. Dimensions analysis of fundamental and derived quantities.
Examples such as Time, Length and Mass with units as s,m,kg. Also, volume m3, -2 acceleration ms example of derived quantity.Using vernier caliper micrometer screw-guage. The degree of accuracy of measuring instruments should be emphasized.Instruments such as measuring cylinder and overflow-can should be
3.Position, Distance& Displacement3.1 State the differencesbetween Distance and Displacement.Definition of position Distance and Displacement.Distinction between Distance and Displacement.Location of position of objects in plane using rectangular coordinate and representation of displacement in a rectangular coordinate system
should be treated.
4.Speed, Velocity & Acceleration in one dimension4.1 Explain UniformlyAccelerated Motion1. Speed
2. Velocity
3. Acceleration
4. Uniform speed, Velocity andacceleration.
5. Equation of uniformly acceleratedmotion
6. Motion under gravity
7. Distance/displacement time graph. 8. Velocity Time graph
9. Calculations using the graphs above.
The use of the equations: V=u+at 2 S=ut+ 1„2atV2 = u2 + 2as
To solve numerical problems.
5.Motion of Bodies1.1 Explain motion and its varioustypes.
1.2 Explain angularspeed in circular motion.Classification of Forces.1.3 Classify forces into field andcontact forces.Friction.1.4 Explain Frictional Laws.Newtons Law of Motion
1.5 State and explainNewton’s Laws of motion.
1. The concept of motion
2. Types of motion with examples.
3. Simple ideas about circular motion andangular speed .
4. Types of Forces
5. Contact and field forces with examples. 6. Contact and field forces with examples. 7. Frictional force.
8. Frictional force and various types.
9. Factors affecting frictional force.
10. Advantages and disadvantages offrictional force.
11. a) Methods of reducing friction.b) Viscosity, frictional forces
12. Calculations on friction and viscosity.13. Newton’s first law of motion. i) Inertia.ii) Inertia mass and weight. iii) Momentum.
iv) The law of conservation of linear momentum.v) Elastic and inelastic collision 14. i) Newton’s second law of motion.ii) Calculations involving the secondlaw.
15. I) Newton’s third law of law.
16. Consequences of Newtons law ofmotion (weightlessness, rocket etc) and calculations involving the laws.
Different types of motion should be illustrated e.g. random, rectilinear, translational, rotational, circular, orbital, spin, oscillatory with practical examples.Banking of roads should be emphasized.Note the differences between static and dynamic friction. Trainees should be made to roll spherical objects on a rough, smooth surfaces and report their experiences.μs = F/R OR F =μR Use F = μR forhorizontal plane and μ=tan Š– for incline plane with Š– as an angle of inclination. Use measuring
cylinder, ball bearing, fluid such as glycerin to illustrate viscosity.Distinction between elastic and inelastic collisionsDerivation of F = ma is necessary.Solve problems on momentum e.g. recoil of a gun, jet and rocket propulsion.
6.Scalar and VectorQuantities6.1. Explain the term scalar and VectorQuantitiesAddition of Vectors6.2. Explain the parallelogramand triangle rules of addition of vectorsResolution Vectors6.3. Resolve vectors into theirrectangular components in two dimension.Scalar and vector quantities with examples.representation of vectors graphically in two dimensions.Resultant of two or more vectorsDetermination of the resultantequilibrium of two or more vectors.The parallelogram rule of the additionof two vectors.The use of triangle rule for vectoraddition.Component of vectors,Resolution of vectors into rectangularcomponents in two dimensions by drawing and by calculations.Explain using the force board.Calculations involving components and resultant of vectors (at right angle and obtuse)
7.Projectile Motion 7.1 Explain projectilemotion and its1. Concept of projectile motion. 2. Definition ofi) range.Applications of projectile in sports, warfare, etc, should
applications.ii) maximum height.iii) time of flightCalculations involving projectileApplications of mentioned.
8.Mass and Weight8.1 Distinguish betweenMass and Weight1. Definition of mass
2. Definition of weight
3. Distinction between mass and weight. 4. The relationship between mass andweight.
5. Calculation using the relationW = mg.
Measure mass and weight using a chemical balance and spring balance.
9.Density and Relative Density 9.1 Explain Densityand Relative Density1. Definition of density.
2. Units of density.
3. Definition of relative density.
4. Calculations involving density andrelative density.
i. Measurement of density.ii. Measurement of relative density.
10.Fluid At Rest1.1 Pressure in fluid at rest.Archimedes
Principle1.2  State Archimedes principle.1.3  Solve problems usingArchimedes
Definition of pressure, S.I. unit of pressure.The relationship between Pressure P, Force F, and Area A as P = F/A.Calculations involving pressure using P = F/A.Atmospheric pressureAtmospheric pressure in bars.Construction and operation of mercurybarometer and manometerOperation of aneroid barometer.Operation of siphon, pump (lift pump,force pump, etc).Hydraulic press.Derivation of an expression for thepressure in fluid P = hpg.Pascal’s principleExplanation of the variation of pressurewith depth.Pascal’s principle.Calculations using P = hpg.Archimedes principle.Forces acting on a body partially orcompletely immersed in a fluid e.g.water.Problems using Archimedes principle.Determination of relative density ofSet up a simple mercury barometer as in Torricellis Experiment.

principle. 1.4 Determinerelative Density using the principle.Floating1.5 State the law of Floatation andexplain its applications.solids and liquids using Archimedesprinciple.
19. Calculation of R.d using Archimedesprinciple.
Law of Floatation
Application of the law in hydrometer, balloon, ships (plumb-line) boats, submarines, etc.)
Determine R.d of solids and liquids using Archimedes
11.Surface Tension1.1  Define surface tension and stateits merits1.2  Discuss itsapplications and give the factors affecting tension.Definition of surface tension and derivation of its units.Forces of adhesion and cohesion and relate this to capillarity and wetting of surfaces. Molecular explanation of surface tension.Factors that affect surface tension temperature impurities, etc.Practical application e.g. capillarity.
12.Elastic Properties of Solids1.1  State Hook’s Law1.2  Calculate problems involvingHooke’s Law.Statement of Hooke’s Law. Problems involving Hooke’s Law.Calculation of work done in stretching or in an elastic body.Definition of tensile stress and tensile strain.Young modulus and its significanceVerification of Hooke’s Law and determination of elastic constant.Calculations involving energy stored and young modulus.
13.Equilibrium of forces1.1  Define moment of force, couple .1.2  Solve problems involvingmoments.1.3  State theconditions of equilibrium of aEquilibrium of three coplanar forces acting at a point.Definition of moment of a force.Definition of couple.Conditions under which a rigid body isin equilibrium under the action ofcoplanar forces.Problems involving momentsDefinition of centre of gravity.Centre of gravity of regular shapes,Determination of unknown masses using the principle of moment. Construction of a beam of balance using the principle of moment. Verification of the principle of
rigid body.Centre of Gravity1.4  Explain the centre of gravityof a body.1.5  Determine thecentre of gravity for some regular and irregular shaped bodies.e.g. lamina, triangular, etc.Stable, unstable and neutralequilibrium.Factors affecting stability of a body.moment.Determination of centre of gravity of both regular and irregular shapes, e.g. using the plumbline method.
14.Simple HarmonicMotion14.1 Define and explain simple harmonicmotion.
14.2 Explain periodfrequency andamplitude of simple HarmonicMotion (SHM).14.3 Explain speed and acceleration ofSHM.
14.4 Explain the energyof SHM, forced vibration and resonance.
1. Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) 2. Period, frequency and amplitude ofsimple harmonic motion.
3. Velocity and acceleration of SHM. 4. Energy of SHM.
5. Forced vibration and resonance.
Illustrate SHM with spiral spring, simple pendulum, loaded test-tube and bifilar suspension. Experimental determination of ”˜g’ usingi. Simple pendulum ii. Helical spring iii. Illustrate energystored graphically.
15.Energy15.1 Describe the various forms ofenergy. 15.2 Identify andclassify the sourcesof energy. 15.3 State theprinciples
of conservationof energy.
1. Forms of energy.
2. Classification of energy into renewableand non-renewable.
3. Principles of conservation of energy.
Give examples of different forms of energy mechanical, heat, chemical, electrical and light. Examples of renewable energy sources are solar, wind, tidal, hydro and ocean waves. Example of non
renewable energy sources are petroleum, coal, nuclear and biomass.Illustrate with simple pendulum, striking of match box.
16.Concept of Workand Energy Power16.1 Define work and energy.16.2  Explain potential energy andkinetic energy and conservation of mechanical energy.16.3  Explain power.1. Work (Definition and formula).
2. Energy
3. Types of mechanical energy: potentialand kinetic energies
4. Work done in gravitational field.
5. Power.
6. Calculations involving work, energyand power.
Illustrate with the lifting and falling of bodies.
17.Simple machines17.1 Define simple machine andexplain the mechanical advantage (MA), velocity ratio(VR)and efficiency eof
machine.17.2 Explain the effectsof friction on efficiency.
1. Simple machine and types.
2. The force ratio Mechanical Advantage(MA)
3. Velocity Ratio (VR) of different simplemachines.
4. Efficiency of machines and itsrelationship with (MA) and (VR). 5. Simple calculations on machine. 6. Effects of Friction on efficiency.
Examples of machines: Levers, pulleys, inclined plane, wedge, screw, wheel and axle, gears.Determine the MA of different simple machines.
18.Concept of Temperature 18.1 Explain temperatureand its measurement.1. Definition of heat
2. Definition of temperature.
3. Thermometers and types
4. Properties of thermometric substance. 5. Construction and graduation of simpleliquid in glass thermometer.
6. Temperature scales and conversion ofthermometers.
7. Description of (i) Clinical (ii)minimum and maximum thermometers.
Construction and use of a thermometer.
19.Effects of Heat19.1 Describe the effects of heat.19.2  Explain thermal expansion.19.3  Describe anomalousexpansion of waterExplanation of effect of heat in the following, using kinetic theory.
i. Rise in temperature
ii. Change of stateiii. Expansioniv. Change of resistance.Consequences and applications ofexpansion, e.g. in building, bridges, bimetallic strips, thermostat, overhead cables (causing sagging) and in railway lines (causing bucking.Thermal expansion in both solids and liquid.i. Linear expansivity, ą
ii. Area expansiveity, ß
iii.Volume expansivity, γ
iv. Real and apparent cubic expansity.Relationship between ą, ß and ąAnomalous expansion of water and its importance.Numerical problems on thermal expansion.
Demonstration of expansion using ball and ring, bimetallic strip, bar and gauge etc.Determination of linear expansivity of materials (rod) and volume expansivity of liquid.Discuss Hope’s experiment.
20.Heat Transfer20.1 Explain modes
of heat transfer. 20.2 Compare thermalconductivities ofdifferent solids and liquids.
Heat transfer.
Ӣ Conduction. Ӣ Convection. Ӣ Radiation.Explain conduction and convection using kinetic theory.Examples of good and bad conductors of heat.Comparing thermal conductivities of different metal rods, and various
Comparison of thermal conductivities of metals.Demonstration of water as a conductor of heat.
20.3 Compare radiationand absorption of radiant heat by differentsurfaces.liquids.Explanation of land and sea breezes.Absorption and radiation of heat,radiant heat by different surfaces.Applications of conduction, convectionand radiation of heat in everyday life.Principle and operation of the vaccumflask.Leslie’s Cube experiment.Experimental illustration of a good and bad conductor of heat, e.g. copper and wood/plastic
21.Gas LawsB21.1 State gas lawsand explain thegas
laws using thekinetic theory
1. The Gas Laws:
Boyle’s Law- Charles’ s Law.
– Pressure Law
– General Gas LawExplanation of the gas laws using kinetic theory.Calculations of gas law
Perform the experiments to verify(i) Boyle’s law (ii) Charles’s law
22.Heat Capacity22.1 Explain heat capacity, specificheat capacity andtheir determination.1. Concept of heat capacity.
2. Specific heat capacity.
3. Calculation of quantity of heat. 4. Determination of specific heatcapacities of substances.
5. Land and sea breezes in relation tospecific heat capacity.
Use of the method of mixtures and the electrical method to determine the specific heat capacities of solids and liquids.
23.Latent Heat23.1 Explain the conceptof latent of state ofmatter (melting, vaporisation and sublimation).Definition of latent heat and specific latent heat of fusion and vaporizationCalculation involving them.Boiling and melting points and theeffects of impurities and pressure.Working principles of pressure cooker.Working principle of refrigerator.Boiling and evaporation.Factors affecting boiling andevaporation.Effects of evaporation.Vapour and vapour pressure.Saturated vapour pressure and boiling.Dew point and relative humidity.Humidity, formation of dew, mist, fogand rain.Use the method of mixtures and electrical method to determine the specific latent heat of fusion of ice and of vaporization of steam.Determine experimentally the melting point of a solid and the boiling point of a liquid. Demonstration of regulation, e.g. temperature, humidity, surface area, and draught over surface.
Demonstrate the cooling effect of evaporation using volatile liquid such as methylated spirit. Demonstrate vapour pressure experimentally. Determination of humidity of atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hydrometer.
24.Production and Propagation ofWaves24.1 Describe the concept ofwaves,
production andpropagation of waves.24.2 Describe different types of waves.Properties of Waves24.3 Describe and identifyproperties
of waves.Solve problems involving the equation.
1. Definition of waves
2. Generation and propagation of waves. 3. Graphical representation of waves.
4. Definition of amplitude, wavelength,frequency and period of wave. 5. Using the relationshipV = fλ to solve simpleproblems.
6. Definitions and examples of:i. Transverse.
ii. Longitudinal, and iii. Stationary waves.7. Stationary wave equation,Y=Asin (ωt + 2π) λ8. Properties of waves reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference. 9. Superposition of progressive waves(standing waves).
10. Polarization of transverse waves
Demonstrate energy propagation using ripple tank.Note that frequency, f and period T are related by f=1/T.Explain all the symbols in the relationship.Y = Asin (ωt + 2π) λ
25.Light Waves25.1 Explain sourcesof
light anddemonstrate rectilinear
Sources of light Luminous and non- luminous objects.Rays and beamsRectilinear propagation of light.Ӣ formation of shadows and eclipses. Ӣ Pin-hole camera.Demonstration of rectilinear propagation of light.Construction and
propagation of light.25.2Explain the reflection oflight.Paraxial BeamFocus, Principal focus.
25.3Spherical mirrorand Application
Reflection of light at plain surface, e.g. plain mirror.Laws of reflection, regular and irregular reflection.Images in plain mirror inclined mirrorEffects of rotation of mirrors on the reflected beam.Application of reflection from plain surfaces periscope, sextant, etc Virtual and real image.Types – concave and conex etc. Definition of terminologies principal axis (P.A) Principal focus etc. Formation of images
Sign convection & formula mirror formula
magnification = v = Hi u HoSolve problems using the above relationsUses driving mirror, dentist mirror,sharing mirror etc.Concept of refraction.Application of reflection from plainsurfaces periscope, sextant, etc.Laws of refraction; Snell’s law.Definition of refractive index.Real and apparent depths.Critical angle and total internalreflectionApplications of refraction and totalinternal reflection.Refraction through triangular prism.Calculation of refractive index.μ = Sin 1„2 (A + Dmin) Sin O A N2
15. i lateral displacement andangle of deviation.
ii. Refractive index and angle ofminimum deviation. 16 Distinguish between
working of pin-hole camera to be treated. Verification of law of reflection.Formation of images, characteristics of images and use of mirror formula:1+1=1 uvfv m= uto solve numerical problems. (Derivation of mirror formulae is not required) Experimental determination of the focal length of concave mirror. Applications in search light, parabolic and driving mirrors, car headlamps, etc. Geometrical determination of image positions. Experimental determination of refractive index.
Refraction of Light25.4 Explain the refraction of lightat plane surfaces, rectangular glass prism (block)and
triangular prism.25.5 Explain the refraction of lighton curved surfaces:convex, concave lenses.
converging and diverging lenses.17. Definition of terms e.g. * Principal axis
* Principal focus.
* Optical centre* Focal length
Aperture of converging lenses. 18. Formation of images on lensUse of ray diagrams to illustrate formation of images by lenses.1 + 1 = 1 and m=v uvfuUse the above relation to solve problemsi) Simple microscope
ii) Compound microscope iii) Astronomical telescopeOperational principle of optical projector.Human eye and camera.Eye defects: myopia, hypermyopia,astigmatism and presbyopia.Correction of eye defects.Concept of dispersion.Dispersion and deviation.Description of rainbow.Pure and impure spectrum.Production of pure spectrum.Effects of coloured light.Mixing of colour and mixing pigments.Distinction between primary andsecondary colours.Components of electromagneticspectrum.
Examples of Applications include: image fish-eye-view periscope, optical fibres and binocularsDetermination of focal length of the lens (approximate method etc).
Optical Instruments25.6 Describe optical instruments I.E. (applications ofrefraction).Dispersal of Light25.7 Explain the dispersion ofwhite
light andproduction of colours.
Construction of simple microscope. Draw ray diagram for formation of images by a compound microscope.Demonstrate splitting of white light into different colours by a prism.
26.ElectromagneticWaves26.1 Explain the principles ofelectromagneticwaves and identifyits properties.1. Definition of electromagnetic waves. 2. Distinction between electromagneticwaves and mechanical waves.
3. Electromagnetic spectrum.
4. Uses of various types of radiations. 5. Properties of various radiations in theelectromagnetic spectrum.
Draw electromagnetic spectrum.
27.Sound Waves27.1 Explain the production ofsound waves anddescription of their properties.27.2 Explain the production ofechoes and applications of echo sounding.27.3 Explain musical instruments andits operations. 27.4 Explain forcedSources of sound.Transmission of sound.Speed of sound in solids, liquids, andgasses.Factors affection velocity of sound inair.Production of echoes. Application of echoes:i. ii.Determination of sea depth using echo.
Determination of velocity of sound, time and distance using echo.7.
8. Characteristics of sound e.g. pitch,Distinction between musical note and noise.
Demonstrate that a material medium is required to transmit sound. Examples of factors affecting velocity of sound are: temperature, pressure, wind, etc. Measurement of velocity of sound by echo method.Use sonometer to demonstrate the dependence of frequency (f) on
vibrations.27.5 Explain vibrations
in pipes and closedof air open pipes.
loudness, quality, etc.Vibrations in strings.Explanation of the phenomena of beats.Concepts of forced vibration.Resonance.Harmonics and overtones.Musical tones.Air columnVibration in closed pipes.Vibration in open pipes.Resonance tube experiment fordetermination of the velocity of soundin air.Applications of vibration of air in pipesand wind instrument.length (L) tension (T) and linear density (m) of string i.e.F=1L /T
MUse the above formula involving simple problems. Mention string instruments such as guitar, piano, harp, violin, etc.Use resonance tube and sonometer to illustrate forced vibrations.
Perform experiment on acoustical resonance using resonance tube. Mention applications in percussion instrument e.g. drum, bell, cymbals, etc. Show that the fundamental frequency of a closed pipe isFo = v4L, hence, to = V2λ
S how that the possible harmonics of a close pipe are fo, 3fo, 5fo, 7fo… The fundamental frequency in this case, is fo.
Hence, the

harmonics present in an open pipe are fo, 2fo, 3fo, 4fo… End correction is necessary and use the relationshipV = f λ in silving numerical problems. Mention examples organ, flute, trumpet, horn, clarinet, saxophone, etc.
28.Concept of Fields28.1 Explain gravitational,electric and magnetic fieldsand
state theirproperties.
Definition of fields:
i. Gravitational field. ii. Electric field.
iii. Magnetic field.Properties of force field.
Use compass needle and iron fillings to show magnetic field lines.
29.Gravitational field29.1 Explain the conceptof gravitationalfield, gravitationalfield, gravitationalpotential and escape velocity.Gravitational force between two masses e.g. proton, electronics and planets Newton’s Law of Gravitation.Gravitational field intensity acceleration due to gravity.Relationship between universal gravitational constant (G) ad acceleration due to gravity (g).Effect of latitude, altitude and the rotation of the earth on acceleration due to gravity.Gravitational potential.Escape velocity.Calculation of escape velocity of arocket and, gravitational intensity and potential.
30.Electric Field30.1 Explain static electricity.Describe variousways of producing charges and the force between two1. Concept of charge.
2. Definition of static electricity.
3. Conductors and insulators.
4. Production of charges friction andinduction.
5. The gold leaf electroscope and its use. 6. Distribution of charges on a conductor. 7. Electric lines of force and electric force
Ways of producing negative and positive charges such as contact, friction and induction should be treated. Application of the

charges.30.2 Explain the concept of electric field.30.3 Explain the conceptof capacitance, arrangement of capacitors andtheir applications.Capacitor and capacitance 30.3 Explain theconcept of capacitance, arrangement of capacitors and their applications.between point charges.Coulomb’s Law e.g.”F=Kq1q2 R2F = qEElectric field intensity or potentialgradient.Force on a charge in an electric field:Electric potential and electric potentialenergy.Capacitors.Definition of capacitance.Factors affecting capacitance.Series and parallel arrangement ofcapacitorsEnergy stored in a charged capacitorApplications of capacitors.Gold Lead.Application of lighting conductor.Note: Permitivity of a material medium between point charges. Calculation involving electric field, electric field intensity and electric potential is necessary.Note Farad (F) as unit of capacitance. Use C = εAd to computecapacitance where ε is permitivity of medium.Derivation of formula for energy stored in charged capacitor, Example: 2
E = 1„2 CV or
E = 1„2 QV or
E = 1„2 Q2/C
Uses examples in radio, TV, prurification of metals etc (Derivation of

formulae for capacitance is not required).
Current Electricity30.4 Current electricity.Explain the production of electric current from cells.30.5 Explain potential difference and electric currentusing an electric circuit.Electric Energy and Power
30.6 Explain electricenergy and power.
18. Simple cells
19. Defects of primary cell and itsremedies.
20. Leclanche wet and dry cells Danieletc.
21. Secondary cell: (Lead-acid-accumulator).
22. Structure of a secondary cell.
23. Maintenance of accumulator.
24. Simple electric circuit.
25. Current, emf and potential difference. 26. Ohm’s law and resistance.
27. Ohmic and non-Ohmic conductors.
28. Series and parallel arrangement of cellsand resistors.
29. Determination of effective emf andeffective resistance for series andparallel arrangement.
30. Lost volt and internal resistance ofcells and batteries.
31. Definition of electrical energy andpower.
32. Heating effect of electrical energy andits applications.
33. Numerical problems on heating effectsof electrical energy using the relation mcÓ¨ = 1vt or = 12Rt
or 2
=V tR or 12Rtor V2tR
Where mcÓ¨ = heat energy and 1vt= electrical energy34. Galvanometer
35. Conversion of galvanometer tvoltmeter using multiplier.
Give example of secondary cells as lead-aicd- accumulator, alkaline cadmium cell.Draw a well labeled diagram of lead- acid-accmulator. Rechargeability. Noe the unot of potential difference as volt (V), ampere (A) for current and Ohm (Ω) for resistance. Experimental verification of Ohm’s Law.Solve problems r=E-VI
Give examples ofOhmic and non- Ohmic conductors and factors affecting Ohmic conductors.Examples of applications are: Electric motor, ring boiler, electric kettle.Explain kilowatt- hour in commercial electricity as the Board of trade unit.
30.7 Describe the operations ofshunt
and multiplier
Calculation involving the conversion of galvanometer to ammeter and to voltmeter is necessary.
30.8 Define resistivity and conductivityof
a material and enumerate thefactors affectingelectrical
resistance of a material.30.9 Explain the measurement ofelectric current,potential difference,resistance emf and internalresistance of a cell.
Factors affecting the electrical resistance of a materialDefinition and S.1. unit of resistivity. Definition of conductivity and its unit.Solve simple problems using R =ρ LAPrinciple of operation and the use of:i. Ammeter.
ii. Voltmeter.
iii. Potentiometer.
iv. Metre bridge.
v. Wheatsone bridge.
Note : S.I. unit of resistivity as (Ωm) and that of conductivity as ((Ωm)-1.Also the relationship between resistivity (ρ) and conductivity (σ) as i = σe
Mention factors asresistivity, length, cross-sectional area (radius), temperature. Perform experiment using potentiometer determine and compare emf, p.d of cells.By using metre bridge, determine the unknown resistance in a circuit.
Conduction Through Liquids30.1 Explain
1. Definition of electrolysis
2. Electrolytes and non-electrolysis.
3. Charge carriers in electrolytes: anionsand cations.
4. Conduction of charge carriers through
Give examples of electrolytes and non-electrolytes.
electrolysis and itsapplications.electrolyte.Simple copper voltmeter.Uses of electrolysisFaraday’s laws of electrolysis and theapplications of electrolysis.Mention examples of applications as electroplating, extraction of metals e.g. aluminum and purification of metals.
31.Electrical Condition Through Gasses 31.1 Explain dischargethrough gasses,hot
cathodeemissions and theirapplications.
1. Discharge through gasses.
2. Hot cathode emission.
3. Applications of discharge throughgasses and hot cathode emission.
Example in neon signs, fluorescent tubes, etc.
32.Magnetism32.1 Explain the properties of magnets andconcepts of magnetization.1. Magnetic materials.
2. Processes of magnetization anddemagnetization.
3. Distinction between permanent andtemporary magnets.
4. The earth’s magnetism.
5. Angles of dip and declination.
6. Description and application of themarine compass.
7. Magnetic field due to bar magnet. 8. Interaction of fields of:i. Two bar magnets.
ii. Bar magnets and earth’sfield.
9. Field due to current carrying conductorand a solenoid.
10. Force on a current-carrying conductor. 11. Applications of force on current-carrying conductor e.g. electric motor,moving-coil galvanometer.
12. Force on two parallel conductorscarrying current.
13. Principle and operations ofelectromagnets.
14. Applications of electromagnets e.g.electric bell, telephone earpiece.
15. Magnetic force on a moving charged
List examples of magnetic materials: soft iron, nickel, cobalt, etc.Explain magnetic flux and density, magnetic field around a permanent magnet, a current- carrying conductor. Plot lines of force to locate neutral points using compass needle, iron fillings. Note units of magnetic flux and magnetic flux density as weber (Wb) and tesla (T) respectively. Compare the use of iron and steel as magnetic materials. Ilustrate with stroking and electrical method, also heating for de-
16. Problems involving the motion ofcharged particle in a magnetic field.
magnetization only. Illustrate the direction of the movement of the conductor using Fleming’s left-hand rule.Solve problem using F = BIL sinθ Use right grip rule or corkscrew rule to illustrate the direction of magnetic field.
Use electric bell in your laboratory to illustrate the principle of operation of electromagnet.
33.Electromagnetic Induction
33.1 Explain the conceptof electro- magneticinduction. 33.2 Explainelectromagnetic induction and its applications.33.3 Explain the conceptof inductance. 33.4 Explain Eddycurrent, power transmission and distribution.
1. Concept of electromagnetic induction. 2. Electromagnetic induction: Faraday’sLaw, Lenz’s Law.
3. Experiment to verify Faraday’s lawand Lenz’s law.
4. Induced emf in a conductor moving ina magnetic field.
5. Generators (d.c. and a.c.); E = Eo sin ωt.
induction coil.
Inductance (only self inductance). Energy stored in an inductor.6.
10. Applications of inductors e.g. radio,TV and transformer.Eddy current.Reducing Eddy current losses andapplications of Eddy current.Power transmission and distribution.Reduction of power losses in high-tension transmission lines.Household wiring system.
Determination of direction of current using Fleming’s right rule.The principle underlying the operations of direct and alternating currents should be treated. Note also that in equation E = Eo sin wt. Where E = induced emf, Eo = peak emf, w = angular velocity and t = time.Note unit of inductance as Henry (H). Use E = 1„2 LI2 to solve simple problems
(Note derivation of formula is not necessary).
Method of reducing Eddy current and the application of Eddy current losses in induction furnace, speedometer etc. Example of reduction of power losses process is to transmit power at low current and high volage. Fuses, electrical installations: Line (L), Neutral (N) and Earth (E) should be discussed.
34.Simple A.C. Circuit34.1 Explain the graphicalrepresentation ofvariation of e.m.f.and current in an a.c. circuit, peak and r.m.s valuesof
a.c. circuits.34.2 Analyse series circuit containingresistance, inductance and capacitance abd explainreactance, impedance,vector diagrams,resonanceand power in an a.c.
Graphical representation of variation of current in an ac circuit.Peak and r.m.d. values for a.c. circuit.Phase relationship between voltage andcurrent in the circuit’s elements;resistors, inductor and capacitor.Resistance, inductance andcapacitance.Reactance and impedance.Phase diagrams.Resonance in an ac series circuit.Power in an ac circuitTreat the graph equation I = Io sin ωt for current and E = Eo sin ωt for e.m.f.Lo = ˆš2 1rms Note the relationship between the peak and r.m.s. values. Eo = ˆš2 ErmsUse
Z = ˆšR2+(XL-Xc)2To solve simple problems. (Deirvation of the formulae is not required). Differentiate between reactance and resistance.

circuit.Application of resonance on TV and radio should be discussed.
1.Structure of Atom35.1 Describe the models of theatom and the limitationof each.35.2 Explain energy quantization.35.3 Explain photoelectriceffect.35.4 Explain thermionicemission and X- rays: production, characteristicsand applications.Models of the atom. ”¢ Thomson.”¢ Rutherford.Bohr, andElectron cloud.(Bohr.)Definition of energy quantization.Energy levels in the atomAbsorption spectra and spectra ofdischarge lamps.Line spectra, bond, continuous fromhot bodies.Concept of photoelectric effect.Definition of work function andthreshold frequency.Einstein’s photoelectric equation.Calculations involving Einstein’sequation.Application of photoelectric effect.wave-particle duality of lightThermionic emission and itsapplication.Production of X-rays.Types, characteristics and properties ofX-rays.Application of X-rays.Hazards of X-rays and the safetyprecautions.hv = Eo + KEmax Discuss applications in TV, camera etcIllustrate the production of X-ray using a well- labelled diagram of X-ray tube.
36.Structure of the1. Composition of the nucleus of an atom:Deine the term:
nucleus36.1 Explain the composition ofthe nucleus. 36.2 Explainradioactivity. Identify the types and giveexamples of radioactiveelements.
36.3 List radioactiveemissions, describe their properties, uses and ways ofdetecting them. 36.4 Explainradioactive decay, half life,transformation of elements by radioactivity and the applicationsof radioactivity.
Ӣ Protons.Ӣ Neutrons.Isotpes.Concept of radioactivity.Natural and artificial radioactivitiesRadioactive elements.Radioactive emissions.Properties and uses of radioactiveemissions.Detecting radioactive emissions.Radioactive decay, half-life and decayconstant.Transmutation of elements byradioactivity.Applications of radioactivity.nucleon number (A), proton number Z, neutron number (N) and state the equation A= Z+N. Treat also nuclides and their notations.Give examples as Uranium, Thorium, etc.
Give examples of the emissions as alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays. Mention the methods used to detect emissions e.g. G.M. counter, photographic plates. Use the formula: T1„2 = (loge2)λ = 0.693λ
to solve simpleproblems.
36.5 Explain nuclear reactionsfusion and fission.12. Types of nuclear reactions: Ӣ Fusion, and
Ӣ FissionBinding energy, mass defect and energyequation: E= MC2Principle of nuclear reactors and atomic bomb.15. Radiation hazards and safety precautions.16. Peaceful uses of nuclear reactions.
Give examples of aplications as in agriculture, industry, medicine, archeology, etc.
Basic Concepts in Electronics1. Distinction between conductors, semi- conductors and insulators using
47.1 Distinguish betweenconductors, semi- conductors and insulators interms of conduction. 37.2 Explain doping of semi-conductors p- and n- type semi-conductors, majority and minority carriers.37.3Explain I V characteristics ofp n junction diode andrectification.
37.4 Explain modes of operation oftransistors and single stage amplifier.
conductivity and modes of conduction.Intrinsic conduction.Valance, conduction and forbiddenenergy bands and their effects onconductivity of material.Doping of semi-conductors.Extrinsic conduction p- and n- typesemi-conductors.Majority and minority carriersI V characteristics ofp n junction diode.Half and full wave rectification.Smoothening of rectified waveformsusing capacitors.Modes of operation ofp-n-p and n-p-n transistors.Operations of a single stage amplifier.Integrated circuits.Draw and label the circuit for a single stage amplifier and use it to explain its operations.You are only required to mention integrated circuits








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