NABTEB Geography Syllabus

NABTEB Geography Syllabus And Hot Topics To Read For 2021 NABTEB: If you have been wondering how to get NABTEB Syllabus Online Plus hot topics you are to focus on in Geography then Guide is for you. 


The aim of the National Business and Technical Examinations Board (NABTEB) Geography Syllabus for 2021 is to ensure that you are well prepared for the exam. 


This syllabus has been designed from the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) for senior certificate categories. It is geared towards the achievement of the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) and the critical elements of the National Empowerment and Development Strategies (NEEDS) of the Federal Government.


Basically, Geography addresses issues that have to do with man and his socio-cultural and physical environment; its ability to help to circumvent the fundamental matters of environmental possibilism, determinism and probabilism.

This syllabus is therefore designed to test the candidates’ achievement of underlining course objectives. OBJECTIVES:
At the end of this course, students should be able to:


1.1 Identifyphysicalandculturalfeatures of their town/village1.2  Locatethephysicalandcultural feature in relation to the schooland its surrounding/environment1.3  Describetheinfluenceofphysicaland cultural features of the town/village on human activities
i. Physical features o Reliefii. iii.iv.o Vegetation o ClimateoDrainage etc. Cultural features e.g. Church, mosque, market, roads, settlements etc. Direction andlocation of physical and cultural features within the town/village. Influence on human activities e.g. farming, fishery, pottery, trade, etc.1.     Carry out field work2.     Identifyandlocatethe physical and culturalfeatures of thetown/village.3.     Explain the location ofphysical and cultural features in relation to the town/village e.g. rivers, hills, streams, church, mosque, market etc.4.     Draw a sketch map of the town/villageshowing thelocation, direction, distance of physicalandcultural features in relation to the school.
2.0The local Government Area (LGA)2.1 Identify the localgovernment headquarters;2.2 Locate the village/town, ward and LGA;2.3 Explain the locationals relationship between the LGA and other local Government Areas in the state;2.4 Describe the major physical features of the LGA in relation to the state.       i.         LGA headquartersii.         LocationalRelationshipiii.         Physical characteristics”¢ Relief
Ӣ Vegetation
Ӣ Climate
Ӣ Drainage etciv. Economic Activities: E.g. transportation, agriculture, fishing,trade, etc.
–– –a. b. c.d. e. f.Carry out field work Explain
Location, direction and distance wards/villages/towns in the LGA.Physical characteristics of theLGA. Economic activities of the LGA.Draw a sketch map ofthe LGA;and Locate their village/town on the map,Insert major physical features,
Show themajor economic activities of the LGA.
3.0The earth and other planers3.1 Identifythecomponentsofthe solar system;3.2 Describe the position of the earth in relation to the sum and other planets;i.ii.Ӣ Ӣ ӢComponents of the solar system e.g. Mercury, Venus, Earthetc.
The earthSize
Position in relation to the
1.     Demonstrate how to model Solar System.2.     Use the model to identify and describe components of the solar system.3.     Explain the:

3.3 Proof the shape of the earth.Sun and other planets.d. Shape and sizeof the earth. Position of the earth in relation to the sun and other planets.Highlight the major features of the earthand other planets.
4.0Earths rotation and revolution4.1 Describe the phenomena of earths rotation and revolution;4.2 Explain the effects of the earths rotation and revolution       i.         Meaning of rotation revolution.ii.         Effects of rotationand revolution;Day and nightAxisOrbitSeasonsEquinoxesSolsticeHemisphere, etc1.     Use the globe and other models todemonstrate rotation and revolution2.     Explain the effects of the earths rotation andrevolution3.     Highlight threemajor effects each of rotationand revolution
5.0Latitude and longitudes1.1  Define latitude and longitude;1.2  Differentiate between latitudeand longitude;1.3  Describe the relationshipbetween latitude and majorregions of the word;1.4  Uselatitudeandlongitudetolocate positions of towns,countries, cities,etc;1.5  Deducedistancesandlocaltimefrom latitude and longitude.– – – –– – – –i.ii.Latitude; Meaning of latitudeEquator
Latitudeand distances Relationship with major regions of the world (tropics of cancer and Capricorn, Arctic and Antarctic circles.Longitudes: Meaning oflongitudes Time and time zones International dateline Grid references
–– – –– –– ––– – –Grid references. b. Explaina.Use the globe and map of the world to identify and explain:Latitudes and longitudes Equator Meridian Greenwich mean time (GMT) International datelinec.The Equator Relationship with major regions of the worldThe meridian and the time zones, etc.Explanation onhow to Differentiate between latitude and longitude; Determine distances using latitude;
Calculate local time of placesfrom longitude
6.0The Earths structure6.1 Identify the major spheres of the earth; 6.2 Identifythecomponentlayersoftheearths crust;
6.3 DescribethecharacteristicsofeachLayer;
6.4 Draw and label the cross section of theearths interior;
6.5 Explain the relationship between theatmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.
i.– – – –ii.iii.iv.– – –Major spheres oftheearth: Atmosphere Biosphere Lithosphere HydrosphereRelationship between the three sphere.
Relevance to human activities.Structure of the earth Crust
a.Ӣ ӢUse diagram andsketches to Identify earths major spheres Identify the structure of earth crustb. Explain
Ӣ Composition ofthe spheresStructure andcharacteristics of crust, mantleand coreThe relationship between the three major spheres and their relevance to human activities
7.0Rocks7.1 identify the major types of rocks; 7.2 Describe the structure of igneoussedimentary and metamorphic rocks; 7.3 Statethedistinguishingcharacteristicsof different types of rocks;
7.4 Explain the process involved in theformation of rock types;
7.5 Explain the importance anddisadvantages of rocks to man.
i. Types of Rocks– Igneous
– Sedimentary – Metamorphicii. Characteristics of rocks – Structure
– Colour
– Texture– Permeability
i. Mode of formationof the rock types ii. Importance ofrocks to man
a. Carry outfield work to collectand classify rocks b. ExplainӢ Structure, colour, texture andpermeability ofthe rocktypes Ӣ Process for theformation of igneous sedimentary and metamorphic rocksӢ Importance of the rock typesc. Prepare and album of rocks inthe locality.
8.0Mountains8.1 Identify major mountain types;
8.2 Statethedistinguishingcharacteristicsof the different types of mountains; 8.3 Explain the processes involved in the formation of the different mountaintypes;
8.4 Explain the importance anddisadvantages of mountains to man.
– – – –– – – –Volcanic Fold Block Residuali.i. ii. iii.Types of mountainsCharacteristics of the mountain
Mode of formation of the mountain types Importance of mountainsMinerals Agriculture Communication Climatic effect etc
a. Use pictures and models toidentify differentmountains types b. Take a tour of thelocality to observe highlands in the localityc. Explain:
Ӣ Structure andcharacteristics of the mountain typesӢ Process forthe
Formation of the mountain Ӣ Importance anddisadvantages of mountains to man
9.0Lowlands9.1Identify the major types of lowlands; 9.2Describe the characteristics of thedifferent types of lowlands; 9.3Explain the processes involved in theformation of lowlands;
9.4 Explaintheimportanceoflowlandstoman.
i.Ӣ Ӣ Ӣii.Ӣ Ӣ Ӣiii. iv.Types of lowland: ValleyCoastal Plain etc.Characteristics of ValleysPlains Coastal areas.Mode of formation of thelowlands. Importance of lowlands.a. Carry out field work toobserve some lowlands.b. Use models, illustrativediagrams, pictures and sketches to explain:Ӣ Characteristics of the different types of lowlandsӢ Processes for the formation oflowlands (valleys, plains and coastal areas)Ӣ Importance of lowlands e.g.Agriculture, minerals, timber etc.,Ӣ Make models of the different types of lowlands
10.0Earths External; processes and Landform Development:(a) Action of running water10.1 Describe water as an energy system; 10.2 Explain Erosion processes of runningwater;
10.3 Explain the transportionalprocesses/effects of running water inlandform development;
10.4 Discusstheerosionanddepositionalfeatures of rivers;
10.5 Describeandclassifyriverbasinsintodifferent types;
10.6 Name major river basins in Nigeria; 10.7 Explain the importance to communityand humandevelopment.
i.Ӣ Ӣ Ӣ Ӣii.Water as anenergy system Slope or gradientShape of valley
Volume of river
Size of materials carriedProcesses of rivererosion: CorrosionӢ
Ӣ Attrition
Ӣ Hydraulic actioniii. Transportation processesӢ Suspension Ӣ Saltation
Ӣ Solutioniv. Erosional features of riversӢ Gorges
Ӣ V-shapes valleys Ӣ Rivers captures Ӣ Waterfall
Ӣ Meanders
a. Carry out field work to observe effects of runningwater
b. Use diagrams andsketch to explain corrosion, attrition, hydraulic action ofriversc. Explain
Ӣ Erosion andtransportationprocesses Ӣ Erosion and depositionalfeatures of rivers

Ӣ Rapid andcataracts
v. Depositional features:Ox-bow lakeFlood plains Ӣ delta
11.0Action of winds11.1 Identifyanddescribetheprocesses of wind erosion;11.2 Explain the features of and mode of formation of landforms;–ª inselberg
–ª Rockpedestal
–ª Zeugen
–ª Messaandbutto,etc;11.3 Describe the features of wind deposition.
i. Processes of wind erosion Ӣ Abrasion
Ӣ Attrition
Ӣ Deflationii.Ӣ ӢFeatures and modesof formation of: InselbergRock pedestal
Messa and butto, etc; Features and modes of formations of: Barchans
Self dunes, etc.
a.”¢Use pictures, films models and sketches to:Explain theprocesses of abrasion, attrition and deflationb. Describe the features and formation of the following landforms:3„4 inselberg3„4 rock pedestal3„4 zeugen3„4 messa and butto,etc.c. Discuss thesequential formationand featuresof:BarchansLoessSelf dune, etc
12.0(c) Glacial Action
12.1 Describe the characteristicsfeatures of glacial actions in:highland, and lowland areas;
12.2 Explain the modes of formation ofthese features and landforms 12.3 Locate the countries/regionswhere features are found;
12.4 State the economic importance ofthe features/landforms
i. Glacial features in highland areas:CirqueArtesTan, etcii. Glacial features in lowland area:Roche mountainsCrag and trail, etciii. Economic importance of Glacial featuresa. Uses films, picturs and modesto:Explain the characteristicsfeatures oflandformsin glacialregionUsing the world map,locate the countries/regions where these landforms arefound.Explain their modes of formation andeconomic importanceMake annotateddiagrams of the landforms.
13.0Action of Waves13.1 Distinguish between waves tides andcurrents;13.2 Explaintheprocessofwave erosion;13.3 Describe the characteristic landforms/features of coastal erosion anddeposition.i. ii.Ӣ Ӣ Ӣ Ӣiii.Ӣ Ӣ Ӣ Ӣiv.Ӣ Ӣ Ӣ ӢWaves/tides/currents (definition and characteristics
Erosional processes:Corrosion Attrition Solution Hydraulic actionErosional features Cape
CavesStaves, etc Coastal depositionBeaches
Marine dunes
1.     Take a field work to observe features of wave erosion and deposition.2.     Use pictures, films and modelsto:Explain the meaning and characteristics of waves, tide and currentsExplain erosional processes andcoastal landformsIdentify and describe features of coastal erosion and depositionc. Make annotated diagrams forlandforms
14.0Earths Internal process (a) Earthquakes14.1 Define earthquakes;
14.2 Explain the origin and focusof earthquakes;
14.3 Explain itscauses;
14.4 Locateearthquakeproneregions on world map; 14.5 Describe the effects ofearthquakes on the environment
i. Origin/focus:
Ӣ Tremorii.iii.iv.Epicentre wavesShock wavesCauses of earthquakes:Faults from collisionof tectonicplatesSudden release ofstress Regions of earthquakeoccurrence:Tonga regionChile-Argentina regionFiji IslandsMid-Atlantic ridgeSome AsianCountries Effects ofearthquakes:Displacement ofearth crustRaising and loweringof coastalrocks
a.ӢӢ ӢӢb.Use documentaryfilms toexplain Meaning, origin/focus of earthquakes Causes ofearthquakes Earthquake regions and their characteristic features Effects of earthquakes on earths environment.Supervise how to insert earthquake regions on a world map.

Raising and lowering of ocean floorLandslides and cracks, etc
15.0(b) Vulcanicity15.1 Identify vulcanicity;
15.2 Describe vulcanicity processes; 15.3 Locate volcanic regions on a worldmap;
15.4 State the characteristics features oflandforms in the regions.
i. ii.iii. iv.”¢– –”¢ ”¢ ”¢ ”¢ ”¢”¢”¢ ”¢ ”¢ ”¢ ”¢ ”¢Meaning ofvulcanicity Processes;Crustal disturbance Intrusion
EruptionEmission, etc
Regions of occurrence Characteristic features of landforms in the regionsInstruction features/landforms: Silk
Batholiths accoliths
Opoliths PhacolithsExtension features: Composite cone
Java domes or shield Shield volcanoes Ash and cinder cones
a. Use documentary films to explain:Vulcanicity processesVolcanic regions of theworldIntrusive features/landforms in volcanic regionsExtrusivefeatures/Landforms involcanic regionsEffects of vulcanityb. Insert volcanicregions on a world map.
16.0(c) Karst (Limestone)
16.1 identify Karst regions in Nigeria andthe world;
16.2 StatethecharacteristicsofKarsttopography
16.3 Identifyanddescribethesurfaceand underground features of karstregions
16.4 Explain the importance of karstregion to man
–– –– ––– – –i.ii.Karsttopographyregion Characteristics of karst topography:
SolubilityAbsence of luxuriant vegetation cover Absence of drainage Joints and rugged topographyDry surface valley, etc Features of karst regions – Surfacefeatures:Grikes
Clints Swallow holes
1.     Take a field tour experience of Karst regions (where possible).2.     Use simple experiments,–”¢”¢pictures, maps anddocumentaries to: Explain the characterstics of karst topographyLocate the karst regions aroundthe world especially in NigeriaExplain surface and underground features ofkarst region

Ӣ Sink holes Ӣ Doline
Ӣ Uvalo
”¢ Pojes– Underground features:Caves and cavernsLimestone gorgeResurgence or springStalactiesStalagmites ”¢ Pillariii. Importance of Karst topography
– Explain the importance of karst topographyc. Make annotated diagrams of karstregions.
17.0Denudational processes17.1 Explain the concept of denudation;17.2 Identify denudational processes;17.3 Explain the factors affecting denudationi. ii.Ӣ Ӣiii.Ӣ Ӣ ӢMeaning of denudation processes
Types of denudation processesWeathering
Mass movement,etcFactors affecting dendation: Relief
Human activities, etc
–Use pictures, films and models to explain the meaning of denudation.Take a field tour to denudation sites. Explain:–
Supervise field work.Denudation processes Factors affecting denudation
18.0Weathering18.1 Define weathering; 18.2 Identifytypesofweathering;
18.3 Explaintheprocessofeach type
18.4 Explain the effects ofweathering on the environment
i.ӢӢӢii.Major concept:Disintegration (expansion and contraction)
Decomposition (oxidation and carbonation)Weathered debris,etc Types ofweathering:– Physical(mechanical weathering):–  Temperature changes–  Wetting and drying–  Frost action, etc– Chemicalweathering:SolutionOxidationHydrolisisHydrationCarbonation– Biological weatheringPlants andanimals/burrowingHuman activities
1.     A take a field workto observe weathering effects (where possible).2.     Use pictures, films and models to:”¢ Explain the meaning of weathering.c. Supervise field work on weathering processes

19.0(b) Mass movements19.1 Define the concept of mass movements19.2 Identifytypesofmassmovements 19.3 Describetheprocessesinvolvedinthe different types of massmovement,
19.4 Explain the effect of massmovement
       i.         Meaning of mass movementsii.         Types of mass movements:iii.– –Slow (e.g. creep, soil flow) Rapid mass movements (e.g. landslide, rock avalanche/rockfall, etcMass movement processes: – Soil creep:–  Weathered materials–  Gentle slope–  Water lubricates–  Heating and cooling–  Wetting and drying– Soil flow:–  Rock fragments–  Down slope–  Freezing–  Thawing– Landslides–  Souse rock–  Steep slope
– WaterlubricatesRock fallSteep cliff, etciv. Effects of mass movements
1.     Take a field work (where possible) to observe massmovements.2.     Showdocumentary films on mass movements.3.     Use pictures, sketches anddocumentaries to:–  Explain types of massmovements–  Explain massmovements processesd. Explain the effectsof mass movements onthe environment and human activities
20.0The Environment20.1 Explain the meaning of the environment,20.2 Identify the different types of environment;20.3 Describe the components of the different environment;20.4 Classify the different environments and their components into three major domains20.5 Explain the importance of the environment to life       i.         Meaning of environmentii.         Types of environment–  Physical–  Social–  Culturaliii. Domains ofthe environment–  Atmosphere–  Lithosphere–  Biosphere–  Hydrosphereiv. Importance of the environment1.     Conduct outdoor activities to observe the environment2.     Explain the following:–  Classification of mans environment asphysical, social andcultural–  The components of thedifferent types ofenvironment–  Recognize and re-group componentsof the environment into three major domains (atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere)

21.0Weather21.1 Explain the concept of weather
21.2 Identify weather elements;
21.3 List the instruments for measuring weather 21.4 Describe the attributes of weather
21.5 Make accurate measurement of weatherelements
21.6 State the importance of weather on physicaland human activities
(i)  Meaning ofweather(ii)  Weather elements(iii)  Weatherrecords–  Temperature–  Rainfall–  Humidity–  Wind direction andspeed etc (iv) Attributes– Variability
– Aerial extent
– Duration etc
(v) Importance of weather
1.     Explain the concept ofweather2.     Explain thefollowing:–  Weather elements–  Attitudes ofweather–  Importance ofweather on physical and human activities c. Demonstrate howto make measurements and keep weatherrecords
22.0Climate 122.1 Explain the meaning of climate
22.2 List major elements of climate
22.3 Distinguish between climate and weather; 22.4 Locate the major climatic regions on themap of theworld
22.5 Explain the influence of attitude, latitude,wind, ocean currents, etc on climate
22.6 State the importance of climate on physicaland human activities
– – –– – – – – –i. ii.iii.Meaning of climate Elements of climate
AttributesVariability Aerial extent Duration, etciv. Factors affecting climatev. vi.Altitude Latitude
Ocean currents Cloud cover Winds, etcClimate regions of the world Importance of climate on physical and human activities
1.     Explain the concept ofclimate2.     Explain thefollowing–  Climate elements–  Attributes of climate–  Similarities anddifferences betweenweather andclimatic;–  Factors affectingclimate;–  Major climaticregions;importance of climate on physical and human activities
23.0Climate II23.1 Identify climatic factors;
23.2 Explain the effects of these factors onweather and climate;
23.3 Identify and explain the characteristics ofmajor climatic types;
23.4 Locate and describe the distribution of theclimatic types.
i. Climatic factors Latitude
Attitude and relief Planetary wind and pressure- – — –– – –ii. iii.Distance from the sea Ocean currentsetc. 1. Climatic types: TemperatureCold Desert, etc.Characteristics: Temperature, Rainfall etc. Geographic distribution.
1.     Use the globe, maps, diagram and sketches to explain climatic factors and their influence on weather and climate.2.     Usemaps,diagrams and sketches toidentify major climatictypes.3.     Explain thecharacteristics of major climatic types/their geographic

– Influence ofclimatictypes on humanactivities
d. Take a study trip tometerological station
24.0Climatic Classification
24.1 Describe the two climatic majorclassification systems;
24.2 Identify and explain the major and sub-categories of koppens classificationsystem;
24.3 Plot combined temperature and rainfallgraphs of the classification systems; 24.4 Group and locate major climates of theworld using the two classificationsystems;
24.5 State the advantages and disadvantagesof the two classification systems.
i. Greek classification:– ––
ii.Tropical (torrid) Temperature (mid- latitude)
Polar (frigid).Koppens classification: Major categories of:3„4 A- A Tropical
3„4 B-A Dry climate
3„4 C-A Humid Micro- thermal
3„4 D-A Humid Micro- thermal
3„4 E-A Humid Micro- thermal Sub-categories of:
3„4 AAAF, AM and AW 3„4 BABS and BW
3„4 CACW, CS and DW 3„4 DADF and DW
3„4 EAET and EF.iii.         Interpretation and characteristics ofthe sub-categories.iv.         Geographicaldistributionv.         Advantages of the classificationtypes.
1.     Use map the globe, sketches and diagrams to identify and classify climatic regions using the Greek and Koppen’s classification systems.2.     Explain:–  Greek climaticClassification system–  Interpretation andcharacteristics of Koppen’s classification categories–  Geographic distribution of climatic regions in the classification series–  Advantages and disadvantages of each classification system.–  Advantages and disadvantages of each classification system.–  Plot temperature/rainfall graphs.
25.0Environmental resources25.1 Define environmental resources; 25.2 Discuss the different types ofenvironmental resources.
25.3 Give examples of each type,
25.4 Relate human resource quality to size,education, health etc.
25.5 Explain the importance of each type ofenvironmental resources.
i. ii.Meaning of environment resources Types of environmental resources:Atmospheric resources (e.g. sun, wind, biomass, oxygen and other gases, rain etc),Water resources(eg. Waterfalls, plants, fishes and other water animals, etc),Vegetation (eg. Timber, roots, leaves, barks, latex, fruits, fibres,etc), Mineral resources, Land resources. Human resources.– ––– – –iii. Importance of environmentalresources.1.     Use pictures, charts and maps to explain the meaning of environmental resources.2.     Explain:–  Types ofresources–  Components of eachtype of environmentalresources–  Quality of humanresources in relation to size, skilled and unskilled human resources, education and health, etc,–  Uses and importance of environmentalresources.
26.0Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources26.1 Explain the concept of renewable and non-renewable resources;26.2 Giveexampleofeachtype;
26.3 State the advantages of each type
 i.         Meaning and examples of renewable and non- renewable resourcesii.         Advantages and disadvantages of renewable non- renewable resources1.     Uses pictures, charts anddocumentaries to explain the meaning of renewable and non-renewable resources.2.     Take a tour to identify renewable and non-renewable resources.3.     Explain the advantages anddisadvantages of each type.
27.0Environmental problems27.1 Describeenvironmentalproblemsand their causes;27.2 Explain their effects on human activities;27.3 Suggest solutions to the problemsi. Typesandcausesof environmental problems.i. Effects of environmental problems of human activities.ii. Solutions tothe problems.1.     Carryoutfieldwork to observeenvironmental problems and their causes.2.     Use pictures and documentaries toexplain:–  Environmental problemsand their effects onhuman activities,–  Solutions to theproblems.

28.0Environmental Conservation28.1 Explain environmental conservation; 28.2 Discuss the different methods ofenvironmental conservation; 28.3 Give examples of each type; 28.4 Explain the need/importance ofenvironmental conservation.i. Meaning of environmental conservation.ii. Environmental conservation methods:–  Afforestation and re- afforestation,–  Cover cropping,–  Improved farming techniques,–  Environmental education,–  Recycling,–  Legislation on wastedisposal.
iii. Importance ofenvironmental conservation.
a. Use pictures, charts and maps to explain the meaning of environmental conservation.b. Explain–  Types ofenvironmentalconservation.–  Needs and importanceof environmental conservation.
29.0Climatic change29.1 Explainthecausesofclimaticchange. 29.2 Discuss the consequences of climaticchange.
29.3 Explain measures the Nigeriangovernment can take to prevent or remedy the problems.
i. Causes of climatic change:–  Green-house effect–  Ozone layerdepletion–  Chloro-floro carbon (CFC)gases–  Carbon emission–  Deforestation–  Gas flaring, etcii. Consequences of climatic change:–  Melting of ice caps–  Increasing temperatures–  High rainfall–  Submergence of coastalcities–  Desertification–  Cancer and eye cataracts–  Emergence of new diseases–  Extinction of some plantsand animals,etc–  Remedies:–  Reformation–  Zero carbon emission–  Population reduction–  Introduce gas driven cars–  Stop use of aerosols–  Legislation, etca. Use documentaries,pictures etc, to:–  Explain climaticchanges–  Explain causes andconsequences of these changes on human environment–  Give examples of observedconsequences of climatic changes in towns in Nigeria e.g regular flooding of coastal towns like Lagos and portharcourt,–  Desert encroachment in some cities inNorthern Nigeria,etc,–  Identify preventivemeasures/remedies to the problems
30.0Nigeria: location and position30.1 Describe the location and position of Nigeria with reference to her latitude. Longtitude, boundaries and neighbours.30.2 DescribeNigeriabysizeand distance.30.3 Locatestates,localgovernmentareas and their headquarters on the political map of Nigeria.i. Location and position:–  Latitude–  Longitude–  Boundaries andneighbours.ii. Size anddistance–  North to South–  East to West.1. Political divisions:–  States and their capitals.–  Local governments andtheir headquarters.1.     Use maps to describe the location andposition of Nigeria with respect to her neighbours.2.     (i) Describe the location of states and their capitals with reference to latitude and longitude.3.     Determine the size, area and landmass of Nigeria4.     Draw the political map of Nigeria and insert thestates and their headquarters onthe map.
31.0Physical setting of Nigeria31.2 Identify the major highlands; rivers/drainage systems in Nigeria;31.2 Describe the climatic variations in the country;31.3 locate and explain the vegetation belts of Nigeria;31.4 Explain the importance and limitations of Nigerians physical setting.i. Relief:–  Highlands and lowlands–  Draining (major rivers,river basins,etc).ii.         Climate (theseason).iii.         Vegetation belts.(Savannah forest b belts).1.     Organise field work to observe the setting (relief, vegetation, etc) of the locality).2.     Explain the following:–  Nigerians climate,characteristics of differentseasons, etc,–  Vegetation belts and theircharacteristics,–  Merits and limitations ofNigerians physical setting (relief, climate, vegetation, etc).c. Draw maps showingrelief, climate and vegetation belts of Nigeria.

32.0Population of Nigeria32.1 Explain the increase in growth of Nigerians population.32.2 Account for the structure and distribution pattern of the population.32.3 Describe the influence of HIV/AIDS and Ebola on population quality.32.4 Explain population movement patterns and associated problems.i. Population–  Size–  Distribution and structureii. Population quality
iii. Population movement iv. Population data
1.     Observe population structure anddistribution of the school and local environment.2.     Explain the following:–  Population, size, distribution andstructure;–  Population quality,factors influencingthe quality of Nigerians population.
33.0Resources of Nigeria33.1 Identify and classify the different resources found in Nigeria.33.2 Locatewheretheseresourcesare found on themap.33.3 Explain the importance of these resources toNigeria.i. Mineral resources–  Petroleum–  Gas–  Coal–  Tin/columbite–  Iron ore–  Lime stone. ii. Power:–  Petroleum–  Gas–  Coal–  Hydro Electric power (HEP)–  Solar Energy.iii.         Water Resources (rivers, lakes, dams, sea, underground water).iv.         Vegetation (tree crops, food crops, cash crops, timber, etc).v. Vegetation:–  Forests–  Savannah–  Biospherevi. Importance of the Environment.1.     Identify the various mineralsin Nigeria.2.     Take a tour to observe local mining quarrysites etc.– Observe thevegetation andwater resources withinand around the community.c. Use a map to locate whereNigerians major resources are found.– Discuss the importance of these resources to Nigerians economy and development.

34.0Agriculture34.1 Describemajoragricultural practices inNigeria.34.2 Identify major cash and food crops of Nigeria.34.3 Locatewherethesecrops are found on the map.34.4 Explain the importance of agriculture;34.5 Discusstheproblemsof agriculture in Nigeria34.6 Suggest solutions to the problems.i. Types of Agricultural practices:–  Subsistence–  Mechanised–  Pastoral farming–  Crop rotation–  Mixed farming–  Shifting cultivation.ii. Food and cash crops.
iii. Importance ofAgriculture. iv. Problems of Agriculture inNigeria
–– –a.b.Carry out a field work to observe agricultural practicesUse maps, pictures, documentaries, films and slides, etc to explainTypes of Agricultural practices, Nigeria’s major food and cash crops, and importance of Agriculture Agricultural problems inc. Nigeria.
Draw the map of Nigeria and locate the major agricultural produce on the map.
35.0Transport and communication in Nigeria(a) Transportation in Nigeria35.1 Identifythemajormodesof transportation in Nigeria;35.2 Draw maps of Nigeria showing road and rail transportation systems;35.3 Discuss the advantagesand disadvantages of the different transportation modes;35.4 Explain the problems of transportation in Nigeria;35.5 Suggest solutions to transportation problems.i. Transportation
ii. (a) Modes of transportation:”¢ RoadRailWaterAirPipelineAerial ropewaysHuman and animalporteragei.         Advantages anddisadvantage of the different transportation modesii.         Problems of transportationiii.         Influence of transportation onhuman activities
a. Use pictures and documentaryfilms to help identify and describe major modes of transportation in Nigeria.b. Explain:–  Advantages anddisadvantages of the transportation modes–  Transportation problems in Nigeria–  Influence of transportation onhuman activities. c. Draw maps ofroad and rail transportation systems inNigeria.

36.0(b) Communication in Nigeria36.1 Identify the major communication networks/elements in Nigeria.36.2 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the different communication elements/networks.36.3 Explain the problems to communication in Nigeria.36.4 Suggest solutions to communications problems in Nigeria.2. Communication in Nigeriai. Communication Networks:–  Telecommunication (e.g.telephone services, cellularphones, voice mails etc.)–  Post services–  Television Radio–  Newspapers–  Internet, etcii. Advantages and disadvantages of the different communication elements/networks.iii. Problems of communication in Nigeria.iv. Importance of communication onhuman activities.1.     Use pictures and documentary films to help identify and describe major communication elements in Nigeria.2.     Take a tour to communication industries in thecommunity.3.     Explain–  Advantages and disadvantages ofcommunicationsystems,–  Communicationproblems in Nigeria,–  Influence ofcommunication on human activities
37.0Manufacturing industries in Nigeria37.1 Define manufacturingindustries; 37.2 Classify the industries as primary,secondary, tertiary and quaternaryindustries;
37.3 Locate the major industrial zones on amap of Nigeria;
37.5 Identify problems ofmanufacturingindustries;
37.6 Suggest solution to industrial
i.ii. –– – –iii. iv.v. vi.Definition of industryTypes of industry PrimarySecondary Tertiary QuarternaryMajor industrial zones Factors affecting location ofindustries Problems and solution Importance of manufacturing industries in Nigeria1.     Take a tour of manufacturingindustries in thelocality2.     Use pictures,films, documentaries, maps etc to explain:–  Types of manufacturingindustries–  Major industrialzones–  Factors affectinglocation of manufacturing industries
38.0Commercial Activities in Nigeria38.1 Identify major commercial activities in Nigeria;38.2 Describethemajorcommercialareas in Nigeria;38.3 Locate the major commercial zones on a map ofNigeria;38.4 Discuss the importance of commercial activities;38.5 Explain the importance of the stock exchange and capital Market to the commercial activities in Nigeriai.–– –ii. iii.Major commercialactivitiesTrade
Ӣ Local, national, Ӣ InternationalStock exchangeCapital Market Ӣ FOREXTransportation CommunicationMajor commercial areas in Nigeria:
Importance of commercial activities
1.     Take a field work to identifycommercial activities in the locality.2.     Use pictures, films,documentaries, maps etc to explain:–  Nigerians trades, stock exchange, capital market,FOREX etc–  Major commercialzones–  Importance ofcommercial activities.

39.0ECOWAS39.1 Statethemeaningoftheacronym(ECOWAS). 39.2 Identify ECOWAS member states.
39.3 Explain the purpose for which ECOWAS wasformed.
39.4 StatetheadvantageanddisadvantagesofECOWAS.
39.5 Suggest solutions to ECOWAS problems.
i. MeaningofECOWAS ii. Member countriesiii.         Purpose/mandate ofECOWASiv.         Advantages anddisadvantagesv.         Solutions to ECOWASproblems1.     Explain the meaning of ECOWAS2.     Obtain information from the internet on:–  ECOWAS member states–  Purpose and mandate, merits and problems of ECOWASc. Explain solutions to ECOWAS.4.     Visit internet café for information onECOWAS.5.     Locate thememberstates on a map..
40.0Basic concept in Map Reading40.1 Define maps;
40.2 Identify with examples the differentiatebetween map andplan
40.3 Differentiate between map and plan 40.4 State the uses of maps;
40.5 Identify and describe types of scales andtheir attributes;
40.6 Statethemeritsanddemeritsofthevarioustypes of scales;
40.7 Convertfromscaletoactualmeasurements.
– – – –– – ––i.ii.MapsDefinition Types Examples UsesScales andconversion TypesAttributes
Merits and demerits of eachtype
Scale conversion
1.     Show differenttypes of maps.2.     Identify maps and sort them into different classes/types.3.     Explain the following:–  Meaning, types anduses ofmaps;–  Scales, types,attributes of different types of scales, merits and demerits of each type.–  Demonstrate measurements of distance in scale–  Convert scale measurements toactual measurements.

41.0Map Distances41.1 Identify units for expressing map distance; 41.2 Measure distance on a map and convert itto actual distance;
41.3 Convert actual distance to a map
i. Measurement and units.ii. Conversion–  Conversion from map distance toactual distance.–  Conversion of actualdistance to map distance1.     Bring and identify different types of map reading.2.     Identify units uses in expressing distances in the map.3.     Determine actual distances of physical settings (e.g. Length of rivers, distance between two cities measures as crow files distances or curvilinear distances, etc) from map distances.4.     Convert measurement of actual distances to map distances.
42.0Map Reduction and Enlargement42.1 Reduce a map to a given proportion.
42.2 Enlarge a map to a given proportion.
42.3 Plot details on enlarged/reduced maps. 42.4 Compareandcontrastscalesonanenlargedmap and a reduced map.
42.5 Write new reduced/enlarge maps.
i. Map enlargement and reduction:– Grid/square method ii. Scales (small/largescales).a. Provide topographical maps of different types to reduce/enlarge2.     Demonstrate map reduction andenlargement.3.     Help and guide howto:–  Enlarge/reduce maps.–  Compare details e.g. numbers, scales, etc on enlarged andreduced maps.
43.0Interpretation of physical and cultural features43.1 Define contour lines;
43.2 Identify and interpret physical features asrepresented on amap;
43.3 Identifyandinterpretculturalfeaturesonmaps;
43.4 Explain the effects of physical and culturalfeatures on human activities.
i. Contourlines.ii. Physicalfeatures:–  Ridges–  Spurs–  Valleys–  Hills–  Plateau–  Rivers etciii. Cultural features:–  Roads–  Settlements–  Schools–  Communication lines–  Markets, etc1.     Use maps to identify physicalcultural features.2.     Demonstrate howto identify and interpret cultural features on a map.3.     Explain the relationshipbetween physical and cultural features onhuman activities.

44.0Direction and bearing44.1 Identify major cardinal points;
44.2 Describe ways of showing direction; 44.3 Indicate and determine direction andbearing on amap;
i. The major cardinal points:–  True and magnetic north–  Magnetic variations–  Angular bearings andcompass direction1.     Explain the use of angular bearings and compass directions.2.     Find directionsand bearings of points on the field.
44.0Direction and Bearing44.1 identify major cardinal points;
44.2 Describe ways of showing direction; 44.3 Indicate and determine direction andbearing on amap;
44.4 Usedirectionandbearingtofindthelocation of points on the field.
i. The major cardinal points:–  True and magnetic north–  Magnetic variations–  Angular bearings andcompass direction1.     Explain the use of angular bearingsand compassdirections.2.     Find directions and bearings ofpoints on thefield.3.     Locatethemajorcardinal points (i.e. north, south, east, west,north- east, north-west, south-east, south west) etc.4.     Solve problems using examplesfrom topographicalmaps
45.0Representation of Relief Forms45.1 Identify physical features on topographical maps.
45.2 Describe methods of representing these features (relief)on maps.
45.3 Construct topographical maps using the methods to represent physical features in their discrete forms.
i. Physical features (relief);–  Valley–  Spur–  Pass–  Knoll–  Conical Hills,etc.ii. Methods ofrepresentingrelief–  Contour–  Hill shading–  Relief colouring–  Spot heights–  Hachure, etc.1.     Display different types of maps.2.     Use maps, models etc to helprecognize relieffeatures on maps.3.     Use sand traysand ashes to demonstrate the formation of contour lines.4.     Explain methods of representingrelief features on maps.

46.0Transportation46.1 Identify and describe different modes of transportation.
46.2 List transportation means associated with each mode.46.3 Highlight the merits and demerits of each transportation mode/mean;
46.4 Explain the contributions of transportation to economicdevelopment. 46.5 Identify transportation problems and suggest ways of solving them.
i.ii.1. iii.– – – – – –Modes of transportation:Road
Air Pipeline Cable, Etc.Transportationmeans.
Merits and demerits ofeach type. Importance–  Movement of people and commodities–  National and international trade–  Transfer of ideas and technology–  National integration–  Transportationproblems.
1.     Use maps diagrams,pictures, etc to identify major transportation types.2.     Explain the merits and demerits ofeach type interms of:–  Accessibility–  Flexibility–  Haulage capacity–  Speed, etc.c. Describetransportation problems and proffer solutions.
47.0Industry47.1 Identify and classify industries
47.2 Discuss the major industries in Nigeria and other parts of the world.
47.3 Locate major industries area in Africa, Asia, Europe, America, etc.
47.4 Describe the factors that encouraged these locations.
47.5 Identify and discuss the problems of industrial development in Nigeria and the rest of the world.
47.6 Industrial development in Nigeria and the rest of theworld.
i.ii.iii.Classification of industries:– – ––– – –”¢ Primary Secondary Tertiary Quatemary”¢ Heavy industry Light industryFactors affectingindustrial location Raw materials Markets
Capital, etc.Problems of industrial location.
a. Locate major industrial regionson the worldmap:–  Identify anddescribe major industries of the world–  Classify the industries–  Discuss The factorsthe encouraged spatial differentiation in industrial location.b. Visit industries in their locality and observe production processes and interview workers in the industry.

48.0Population48.1 Describeworldpopulationintermof size, density, structure and distribution patterns.
48.2 Account for the variation in world population.
       i.         World population–ª Size
–ª Distributionpatterns –ª Density
–ª Structure      ii.         Factors affecting population distribution–ª Climate
–ª Relief
–ª Soil
–ª Water
–ª Mineral,etc.
1.     Use maps, diagrams, pictures, documentary, films, etc to explain world population with respect to size, density, structure and distribution patterns.2.     Explain the influence ofclimate, relief,soil, water, mineral resources, etc on population density and distribution.3.     Make sketches of world populationdistribution on a map.
49.0Settlements49.1 Identify types of settlements;
49.2 Describe each settlement type in terms of population, economy, administration, etc; 49.3 Explain the influence of soil weather, etc. On settlement location;
49.4 Identify and explain the major settlement patterns;
49.5 Explain the factors responsible for the development of each patterns.
i.– – ii.– – – iii.iv.– – – – – v.Types ofsettlements:Urban RuralCharacteristics of urban and rural settlements:Population Economy Administration, etc.Factors of settlement location (soil, weather, etc). Settlement patterns:Nuclear
Dispersed (scattered) Linear
ConurbationFactors of development of each pattern.
1.     Use maps and sketches toidentify humansettlements2.     Take a tour onfield work to observe human settlement patterns in the locality3.     Explain:–  Settlement types–  Characteristics ofurban and rural settlement location–  Settlement patterns and their developmental factors.

50.0Settlement interaction501 Discuss types of settlements interactions;
50.2 Explain settlements interaction patterns with respect to migration.
i. Typesofinteraction:– – –ii.– – –Commercial Cultural Administrative, etcInteraction patterns: Urban-rural Urban-urban Rural-rural, etc1.     Carry out a field work to observe settlement interaction patterns in the locality2.     Use diagrams, sketchesand flowcharts toexplain:
– Types ofinteractions
– Settlement migration
– Factors responsible formigration of settlements
51.0Geo-political Issues (land Reclamation)
51.1 Explain the concept of land reclamation.
51.2 Describe the various methods for land reclamation.
51.3 Explain the importance of land reclamation.
i. Meaning ofland reclamation.ii. Reclamationmethods: –ª Afforestationiii.–ª–ª –ª–ªConstructionof barriers Sandfilling Constructionof drainages Control oferosion head, etc.Importance of land reclamation.1.     Use photographs of reclamation sites to explain the concept of land reclamation.2.     Take a tour to land reclamation sites.c. Explain
Ӣ Methods ofland Ӣ Reclamationimportance of land
Ӣ Reclamation organizeand supervise Ӣ communitydevelopment project on reclamation
52.0Trade52.1 Define trade;
52.3 Explain the different types of trade;
52.3 Explain why trade occurs;
52.4 Explain the importance of trade.
i. ii.–– iii.iv.– – –Definition of trade Types oftrade:National InternationalReasons for trade Importance of trade:Social Political Economic, etc1.     Visit places where trading of different types take place.2.     Use documentaries, illustrations, picturesand photographs to:–  Explain the meaning of trade–  Identify types of trade–  Explain the economic,social and political importance of trade

53.1 Define tourism.
53.2 Identifyandlocatetourist centres on a map.
53.3 Explain the importance of tourism.
53.4 Identify problems of tourism and suggest solutions to the problems.
i. ii. iii.– – – – –Meaning of tourism Tourist centres Justification fortourism:Leisure
Recreation Education Importance of tourism Problems oftourism
1.     Take a visit to recreational facilitiesin the locality.2.     Use documentaries, illustrations, pictures and photographs to:–  Explain the meaning of tourism–  Locate world tourist centres and identify the attractions to the places–  Explain economic, social and political importance of tourism.–  The problemsand solutions of tourism
54.0Basic concept of GIS54.1 ExplainthemeaningofGIS and geographicdata;
54.2 Describethesourcesof geography;54.3 Distinguishbetween geographic data andGIS; 54.4 State the importanceof geo-referencing;54.5 State the uses of the GIS and geographic data.
i. ii.– –iii.Geographic Information System (GIS) Geographic data:–ª Meaning/Examples Line for river, roads, rails, etc.
Points for boreholes, building, settlements, towns, farms,etc.–ª Sources(maps,field work, satellite images, etc.).Importance of geo- referencing, geographic data and the GIS.
1.     Explain the concept of GIS and geographic data.2.     Carryout field work to: –ª Collectgeographicdata,
–ª GISlaboratory.3.     Participatein group discussion on:–ª Geographicdata e.g. maps, data from field work,satellite images etc; –ª Geo-referencingforGIS data.Explain the importance of geo-referencing.
55.0Components of GIS55.1 IdentifyGIShardwareand software;
55.2 State the uses of the GIS software;55.3 Distinguishbetween positional;
55.4 and relational data 55.5 State the rules for GIS;
i. Hardware components;–  Digitizer–  Global positioning system(GPS)–  Computer–  Printer–  Scanner, etc.ii. Software for:a. Do the following
– Identify GIS hardware – Identify the varioussoftware and their uses – Distinguish betweenpositional
55.6Identify GIS-human ware.

– iii. — iv.v.Data input Storage Retrieval ManipulatedData Positional RelationalProcedures: sets of rules
People: experts
and a relational data – Use the GIS, hardware e.g. digitizer, GPS,Computer, etc b. Explain:–  Data types (positional and relational data–  GIS procedures/setsof rules–  Humancomponents of GIS, their training/qualificat ion
56.0GIS Data56.1 Identify sources of data in GIS environment;
56.2Collect data forGIS
i. Data sources:Land surveyingRemote sensingMap digitizingMap scanningField investigationTabular data,etc1.     Explain GIS data sources2.     Take a field work to collectgeographic data, using various methods3.     Supervise field work
57.0Satellite Remote Sensing57.1 Define the following concepts, remote sensing, satellite and satellite remote sensing;
57.2 Explain the applications of remote sensing;57.3 Explain the relationship between remote sensing and GIS.
i. Definition of concepts:–  Remote sensing–  Satellite–  Satellite remote sensingii. Application ofsatellite remotesensing:–  Foresting–  Environment–  Agriculture–  Telecommunications–  Transportation–  Emergency response, etciii. Relationshipbetween GIS and remote sensing1.     Explain thefollowing with examples:– Remote sensing – Satellites e.g Nigeria Sat-1, IKONOS, SPOTradar, NICOMSat-1, ERS-1 etc – Satellite remotesensing2.     Take a field work tosatellite remotesensing site.3.     Supervise field work.4.     Explain applications ofremote sensing and the relationship between GISand remote sensing.









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